Five Sense-Door Thought-process -
Cittuppadanamicc' evam katva sangaham
Pavattisangaham nama patisandhippavattiyam
Pavakkhama samasena yathasambhavato
? 1. Having thus
completed the noble compendium of consciousness and its concomitants
(with respect to feelings etc.), I shall briefly describe, in due
order, the compendium of (thought) processes in lifetime, according
to the planes and individuals, and as they are determined by what
(consciousness) that precedes and by what that follows (1)
1. In the preceding chapter
states of consciousness and mental concomitants were treated according to
feelings, roots, etc. In the present one the author deals with thought
processes as they arise through the mind and the other five senses, in
accordance with the different kinds of individuals and planes of
The Pali phrase
pubbaparaniyamitam needs an explanation. The commentary explains it
thus - this citta arises after so many cittas, and so many
cittas follow this citta (idam ettakehi param, imassa anantaram,
Patisandhi here refers to
the initial thought-process that occurs at the moment of conception in a
new birth. Pavatti refers to all thought-processes that occur
during the course of one's lifetime.
The translation of these two
verses appears in the Compendium of Philosophy as follows:-
"This further summary of
Of thought now having made, I will go on
concisely, summing up again
Processes of the mind, in birth and life,
By order due, the 'after,' the 'before,'
person and life-plane.' (p. 124).
? 2. Cha vatthuni,
cha dvarani, cha alambanani, cha viani, cha vithiyo, chadha
visayappavatti c'ati vithisangahe chachakkani veditabbani.
kamma-kammani-mitta-gatinimitta-vasena tividha hoti visayappavatti .
vatthudvaralambanani pubbe vuttanayen' eva.
ghanaviam, jivhaviam, kayaviam manoviam c'ati cha viani.
cakkhudvaravithi, sotadvara vithi, ghanadvaravithi, jivhadvaravithi,
kayadvaravithi, manodvaravithi c'ati dvaravasena va
cakkhuviavithi, sotaviavithi, ghanaviavithi, jivhaviavithi,
kayaviavithi manoviavithi c'ati viavasena va dvarappavatta
? 3. Atimahantam,
mahantam, parittam atiparittam c'ati pavare manodvare,
vibhutamavibhutam c'ati chadha visayappavatti veditabba.
khanattayam ekacittakkhanam nama. Tani pana sattarasacittakkhanani
rupadhammanam ayu. Ekacittakkhanatitani va, bahucittakkhanatitani va
thitippattan' eva paambanani pavare apatham agacchanti. Tasma
yadi ekacittakkhanatitakam ruparammanam cakkhussa apatham agacchati.
Tato dvikkhattum bhavange calite bhavangasotam vocchinditva tam'eva
ruparammanam avajjentam pavaravajjanacittam uppajjitva nirujjhati
. Tato tass' anantaram tam' eva rupam passantam cakkhuviam,
sampaticchantam sampaticchanacittam, santirayamanam santiranacittam,
vavatthapentam votthapanacittam c'ati yathakkamam uppajjitva
nirujjhanti. Tato param ek' unatimsakamavacarajavanesu yam ki
laddhapaccayam yebhuyyena sattakkhattum javati. Javananubandhani ca
dve tadarammanapakani yatharaham pavattanti. Tato param
cuddasacittuppada dve bhavangacalanani
pubbevatitakamekacittakkhananti katva sattarasa cittakkhanani
paripurenti. Tato param nirujihati. Alambanam' etam atimahantam nama
Yava tadalamban' uppada
pana appahon-tatitakam apatham agatam alambanam mahantam nama.
Tattha javanavasane bhavangapato' va hoti. Natthi tadalambanuppado.
Yava javanuppada' pi
appanontatitakama-patham agatam alambanam parittam nama.
Tattha javanam pi
anuppajjitva dvattikkhatthum votthapanam' eva pavattati. Tato param
bhavangapato' va hoti.
Yava votthapanuppada ca
pana appahontatitakam apatham agatam nirodhasannamalambanam
atiparittam nama. Tattha bhavangacalanam' eva hoti. Natthi
Icc' evam cakkhudvare,
tatha sotadvaradisu c'ati sabbatha' pi pavare
tadalambanajavana-votthapanamoghavara-sankhatanam catunnam varanam
yathakkamam alambanabhuta visayappavatti catudha veditabba.
? 4. Vithicittani
satt' eva cittuppada catuddasa Catupaa vitthara pavare
Ayam' ettha pavare
? 2. In the compendium of
thought-processes six kinds of six classes each should be understood
i. six bases,
iii. six objects*,
iv. six-fold consciousness,
six processes (2), and
vi. sixfold presentation of objects (3)
The presentation of
objects to the process-freed consciousness** is threefold - namely,
(iii) Destiny sign.
[* These first three
classes have already been discused in the previous chapter. They are
repeated hero merely to complete the six groups.]
patisandhi, bhavanga and cuti.]
The bases, doors, and
objects, therein, are as described before.
The sixfold types of
consciousness are eye-consciousness, ear-consciousness,
nose-consciousness, tongue-consciousness, body-consciousness, and
According to the doors
the thought-processes are:-
1. The process connected
with the eye-door,
2. The process connected with the ear-door,
3. The process connected with the nose-door,
4. The process
connected with the tongue-door,
5. The process connected with
the body-door, and
6. The process connected with the mind-door.
Or, according to
consciousness the thought-processes are: -
1. The process connected
with the eye-consciousness
2. The process connected with the
3. The process connected with the nose
4. The process connected with the
5. The process connected with the
6. The process connected with the mind
connected with the doors should thus be co-ordinated.
? 3. The sixfold
presentation of objects (4) should be understood as
a. At the five sense
(i) 'very great,' (ii)
'great,' (iii) 'slight,' (iv) 'very slight.'
b. At the mind door
(v) 'clear' and (vi)
How is the intensity of
objects be determined?
The three instants such
as genesis, static (or development), and dissolution constitute one
thought-moment. The duration of material things consists of
seventeen such thought-moments.
The five sense-objects
enter the avenue of five sense doors at the static stage when one or
several thought moments have passed.
Hence the thought-process
(4) runs as follows: -
Suppose a visible object
which has passed one instant
(i) enters the avenue of
eye. Then the bhavanga-consciousness vibrates for one moment
(ii, iii) arresting the bhavanga stream.
Subsequently the five-door apprehending consciousness
arises and ceases apprehending that very visible object.
Thereafter the following
thought-moments arise and cease in order -
seeing that very form,
(vi) recipient consciousness receiving
(vii) investigating consciousness investigating it,
(viii) determining consciousness determining it.
Then any one of the 29
kinds of sense-sphere javanas, thus causally conditioned,
runs mostly for seven moments (ix - xv).
Following the javanas two
retentive resultants (xvi, xvii) arise accordingly. Finally comes
the subsidence into the bhavanga.
Thus far seventeen
thought-moments are complete, namely,
two vibrations of
one thought-moment that passed at t he
Then the object ceases.
Such an object is termed
'very great.' (See pp. 231, 232.)
That object which enters
the avenue of sense, having passed (a few moments) and is not able
to survive till the arising of the retentive thought-moments, is
termed 'great. '
That object which enters
the avenue of sense, having passed (a few moments) and is not able
to survive even till - the arising of the javanas, is termed
In that case even the
javanas do not arise, but only the determining consciousness lasts
for two or three moments and then there is subsidence into
That object which is
about to cease and which enters the avenue of sense, having passed a
few moments and is not able to survive till the arising of
determining consciousness, is termed 'very slight.'
In that case there is
merely a vibration of the bhavanga, but no genesis of a
As the eye-door so is in
the ear-door etc.
In all the five doors,
the fourfold presentation of objects should be understood, in due
order, in the four ways, known as -
1. the course (ending
2. the course (ending with) javana.
course (ending with) determining, and
4. the futile course.
? 4. There are seven
modes* and fourteen different types of consciousness in the
thought-process. In detail there are accordingly 54** in the five
Herein this is the method
of thought-process in the five sense-doors.
[* Namely, 1.
avajjana, 2. pa via, 3. sampaticchana, 4.
santirana, 5. votthapana, 6. javana, (7
moments) and 7. tadalambana. These become 14 when the 7
javana moments and 2 tadalambanas are reckoned
[** These comprise all
the classes of Sense-sphere consciousness which arise through the
2. Vithi is derived from
vi + i, to go.
This term means a way or
street, but here it is used in the sense of process (parampara). A
thought-process consists of several thought-moments, and a thought-moment
is never called a citta-vithi.
The commentarial explanation is
- 'the presentation of objects at the doors,' or 'the genesis of
consciousness on the presentation of such objects.' (visayanam dvaresu,
visayesu ca cittanam pavatti).
The author evidently prefers
the first explanation.
According to Abhidhamma
ordinarily there is no moment when we do not experience a particular kind
of consciousness, hanging on to some object - whether physical of mental.
The time-limit of such a consciousness is termed one thought-moment. The
rapidity of the succession of such thought-moments is hardly conceivable
by the ken of human knowledge. Books state that within the brief duration
of a flash of lightning, or in the twinkling of an eye billions of
thought-moments may arise and perish.
Each thought-moment consists of
three minor instants (khanas). They are uppada (arising or
genesis), thiti (static or development), and bhanga
(cessation or dissolution).
Birth, decay, and death*
correspond to these three states. The interval between birth and death is
regarded as decay.
Immediately after the cessation
stage of a thought-moment there results the genesis stage of the
subsequent thought-moment. Thus each unit of consciousness perishes
conditioning another, transmitting at the same time all its potentialities
to its successor. There is, therefore, a continuous flow of consciousness
like a stream without any interruption.
[*These three stages correspond
to the Hindu view of Brahma (Creator). Vishnu (Preserver) and Siva
When a material object is
presented to the mind through one of the five sense-doors, a
thought-process occurs, consisting of a series of separate thought-moments
leading one to the other in a particular, uniform order. This order is
known as the citta-niyama (psychic order). As a rule for a complete
perception of a physical object through one of the sense-doors precisely
17 thought-moments must pass. As such the time duration of matter is fixed
at 17 thought-moments. After the expiration of that time-limit, one
fundamental unit of matter perishes giving birth to another unit. The
first moment is regarded as the genesis (uppada), the last as
dissolution (bhanga), and the interval 15 moments as decay or
development (thiti or jara).
As a rule when an object enters
the consciousness through any of the doors one moment of the
life-continuum elapses. This is known as atita-bhavanga. Then the
corresponding thought-process runs uninterruptedly for 16 thought-moments.
The object thus presented is regarded as 'very great.'
If the thought-process ceases
at the expiration of javanas without giving rise to two retentive
moments (tadalambana), thus completing only 14 moments, then the
object is called 'great'.
Sometimes the thought-process
ceases at the moment of determining (votthapana) without giving
rise to the javanas, completing only 7 thought-moments Then the
object is termed 'slight.'
At times when an object enters
the consciousness there is merely a vibration of the life-continuum. Then
the object is termed 'very slight.'
When a so-called 'very great'
or 'great' object perceived through the five sense-doors, is subsequently
conceived by the mind-door, or when a thought process arising through the
mind-door extends up to the retentive stage, then the object is regarded
When a thought process, arising
through the mind-door, ceases at the javana stage, the object is termed
When, for instance, a person
looks at the radiant moon on a cloudless night, he gets a faint glimpse of
the surrounding stars as well. He focuses his attention on the moon, but
he cannot avoid the sight of stars around. The moon is regarded as a great
object, while the stars are regarded as minor objects. Both moon and stars
are perceived by the mind at different moments. According to Abhidhamma it
is not correct to say that the stars are perceived by the
sub-consciousness and the moon by the consciousness.
? 5. Manodvare pana
yadi vibhutamalambanam apatham agacchati, tato param bhavangacalana
- manodvaravajjanajavanavasane tadarammanapakani pavattanti. Tato
javanavasane bhavangapato' va hoti. Natthi
? 6. Vithicittani
tin'eva cittuppada daserita
Vittharena pan' etthekacattalisa
Ayam' ettha Paritta-javanavaro.
? 5. In the mind-door,
when a 'clear object' enters that avenue, retentive resultants take
place at the end of the bhavanga vibrations, mind-door
apprehending consciousness, and Javanas. After that there is
subsidence into the bhavanga.
In the case of all
'obscure object' there is subsidence into bhavanga at the end
of the Javanas, without giving rise to the retentive resultants.
? 6. Three modes and ten*
different types (of consciousness) in the thought-process are told.
It will be explained that, in detail, there are 41** kinds here.
Herein this is the
section of the minor javana-procedure.
[* Namely, (1)
manodvaravajjana, javana, and tadalambana. When the 7
javanas and 2 tadalambanas are reckoned separately
they total 10 distinctive thought-moments.]
(dvipaia 10 + sampaticchanas, 2 and
pavaravajjana 1) =
? 7. Appanajavanavare
pana vibhutavibhutabhedo natthi. Tatha tadalambanuppado ca.
sampayuttakamavacarajavananam atthannam aarasmim
parikammupacaramagotrabhu namena catukkhattum tikhattum' eva va
yathakkamam uppajjitva niruddhe tadanantaram' eva yatharaham
catuttham paam va chabbisati mahaggatalokuttarajavanesu
yathabhiniharavasena yam kijavanam appanavithimotarati. Tato param
appanavasane bhavangapato'va hoti.
somanassasahagatajavanan'antaram appana' pi somanassasahagata' va
patikankhitabba. Upekkhasahagatajavananantaram upekkhasahagata' va.
Tattha' pi kusalajavana-nantaram kusalajavanan c'eva hetthima
phalattayamappeti. Kriyajavananantaram kriya javanam arahattaphala
? 8. Dvattimsa
sukhapuha dvadasopekkhaka param
Sukhitakriyato attha cha
Puthujjanana sekkhanam kamaputihe tuto
Tihetukamakriyato vitaraganam appana.
Ayam' ettha manodvare
? 7. In the ecstatic (5)
javana-procedure there is no distinction between 'clear' and
'obscure.' Likewise there is no arising of retentive resultants.
In this case any one of
the eight Sense-sphere javanas accompanied by knowledge,
arise, in due order, four times or thrice, as 'preparation'
(parikamma), 'approximation' (upacara), 'adaptation'
(anuloma), and 'sublimation' (gotrabhu). Immediately
after they cease, in the fourth or fifth instant as the case may be
any one of the javanas amongst the 26 Sublime and Supramundane
classes, descends into ecstatic process, in accordance with the
Here, immediately after a
pleasurable javana, a pleasurable ecstatic javana
should be expected. After a javana, accompanied by
equanimity, an ecstatic javana, accompanied by equanimity, is
to be expected.
Here, too, a moral
javana, is followed by a moral javana and (in the case
of attainment - samapatti) it gives rise to three lower
javana is followed by a functional javana and the
Fruit of Arahatship.
? 8. After
(tihetuka) (6) pleasurable meritorious thoughts (7) arise 32
(classes of consciousness) (8); after (tihetuka) meritorious
thoughts, accompanied by equanimity, 12 classes of consciousness
(9); after (tihetuka) pleasurable functional thoughts, 8
classes of consciousness (10); and after (tihetuka)
functional thoughts, accompanied by equanimity, 6 classes of
To the worldlings and
Sekhas ecstasy results after tihetuka Sense-sphere
meritorious thoughts, but to the Lustless (Arahats) after
tihetuka Sense-sphere functional thoughts.
Herein this is the method
of thought-processes with respect to mind-door.
5. Appana - (Sanskrit -
arpana, derived from ri, to go).
This is a rare Pali term found
It is derived from the root
i, to go
'I + the causal suffix;
'ape' + ana. 'A' is substituted for 'i', and
'p' is duplicated; 'A' + ppe + ana = appana. The initial
'a' is shortened before double 'p'.
Venerable Buddhaghosa defines
'appana' as the directing or fixing of the one-pointed
consciousness on an object (ekaggam cittam arammane appenti).
Appana is a highly developed
form of vitakka - initial application of the mind, one of the
The aspirant who wishes to
develop jhanas takes for his object a suitable subject, according
to his temperament. In the course of his meditations, as mentioned in the
first chapter, he arrives at a stage when he would be able to experience
the first jhanic ecstasy.
Then a thought-process runs as
manodvaravajjana - parikamma
- upacara - anuloma - gotrabhu - appana
The first is the mind-door
consciousness, which precedes the javana stage, conditioned by
objects that enter the avenue of consciousness.
The initial thought-moment of
the appana javana-process is termed parikamma because it is
a preparation for the desired higher consciousness whether Sublime
(mahaggata) or Supramundane (lokuttara). This is followed by
another thought-moment known as upacara because it arises in
proximity to the higher consciousness. Ordinarily these two
thought-moments arise at the beginning of the appana
javana-process, but if the person is morally advanced only
upacara moment arises without the initial parikamma moment.
The third thought-moment is
known as anuloma because it arises in harmony with the preceding
thought moments and the following gotrabhu thought moment.
Gotrabhu, literally, means that which overcomes the Sense-sphere
lineage or that which develops the sublime or exalted lineage. Immediately
after this gotrabhu thought-moment arises the appana
jhana thought-moment. Absolute one-pointedness of the mind is
gained at this advanced stage of mental development.
The fully undeveloped
jhana, present in the preliminary thought-moments, is known as
upacara samadhi, access concentration.
To a worldling and a
Sekha one of the four kamavacara moral javanas,
accompanied by knowledge, arises as these preliminary appana
thought-moments. In the case of an Asekha it is one of the four
kamavacara functional javanas, accompanied by knowledge.
The Supramundane appana
javana-process occurs as follows -
In this thought-process
parikamma may or may not precede. As stated above it depends on the moral
advancement of the person. Here gotrabhu means that which overcomes the
lineage of the worldling or that which develops the supramundane lineage.
One of the four kamavacara
moral javanas, accompanied by knowledge, arises in these preliminary
stages. The object of the first three thought-moments is mundane but the
object of the gotrabhu is supramundane Nibbana. Nevertheless, this
developed thought-moment is incapable of eradicating the innate
defilements. It is the magga (Path) consciousness that immediately
follows, which performs the double function of intuiting Nibbana and of
eradicating the defilements. It should be noted that the Path
consciousness occurs only once. This is immediately followed by two
moments of phala (Fruit) consciousness if parikamma is present. Otherwise
there will be three phala thought-moments.
In the case of the second,
third, fourth, stages of Sainthood-the fourth thought-moment is named
vodana, which means purification, instead of gotrabhu. If the parikamma
thought-moment precedes, vodana thought-moment arises as the fourth,
otherwise as the third.
Each of the four Supramundane
Paths arises only once in the course of one's life. But one may experience
the Fruit consciousness even for a whole day continuously. The three lower
fruits, Sotapatti, Sakadagami, and Anagami are preceded by a moral javana.
When one enjoys the Fruit of Arahatship the javanas that immediately
precede must be functionals because an Arahat, being an Asekha does not
experience moral javanas.
6. Tihetuka - conditioned
by three hetus - alobha (generosity), adosa (goodwill) and amoha (wisdom)
7. Viz., two types of
kamavacara consciousness, accompanied by pleasure and knowledge.
8. Namely, the first 4 rupa
jhanas and 28 (7x4) lokuttara jhanas. The Arahat Fruit and functionals are
9. Namely, 1, 5th rupa
jhana + 4 arupa jhanas + 7 lokuttara paajjhana.
10. Namely, 1st 4 rupa
jhanas + 1st 4 arahatta phala jhanas.
11. Namely, 1, 5th rupa
jhana + 4 arupa jhanas + 1, 5th arahattaphalajhana.
Procedure of Retention
? 9. Sabbattha' pi
pan ettha anitthe arammane akusalavipakan' eva
paiasampaticchanasantiranatadarammanani, itthe kusalavipakani,
ati-itthe pana somanassasahagatan' eva
somanassasahagatakriyajavanavasane somanassasahagatan' eva
tadarammanani bhavanti. Upekkhasahagatakriya javanavasane ca
upekkhasahagatan' eva honti.
Domanassasahagatajavanavasane ca pana
tadarammanani c' eva bhavangani ca upekkha sahagatan'eva bhavanti.
Tasma yadi somanassa-patisandhikassa domanassasahagatajavanavasane
tadarammanasambhavo natthi. Tada yam kiparicitapubbam
parittarammanamarabbha upekkhasahagatasantiranam uppajjati.
Tamanantaritva bhavangapato' va hoti' ti' pi vadanti acariya. Tatha
kamavacarajavanavasane kamayacarasattanam kamavacaradhammesv' eva
arammanabhutesu tadarammanam icchanti' ti.
? 10. Kame
javanasattarammananam niyame sati
Vibhute ti mahante ca
Ayam' ettha Tadarammana Niyamo.
? 9. Here, under all
circumstances (i.e., in both sense-door and mind-door) when an
object (12) is undesirable, the five sense-impressions, reception,
investigation, retention (that arise) are immoral resultants. If
desirable, they are moral resultants. If the object is extremely
desirable, investigation and retention are accompanied by
In this connection, at
the end of functional javanas accompanied by pleasure, there arise
retentive thought-moments also accompanied by pleasure. At the end
of functional javanas, accompanied by equanimity, the retentive
thought moments are also accompanied by equanimity.
But at the end of
javanas, accompanied by displeasure, the retentive thought- moments
and the bhavangas are also accompanied by indifference. Hence to one
whose rebirth-consciousness is accompanied by pleasure, if, at the
end of javanas, accompanied by displeasure, retentive
thought-moments do not arise, then, there arises an investigating
consciousness accompanied by indifference, hanging on to some
sense-object with which one is familiar before. Immediately after,
the teachers say there is subsidence into the
Likewise they expect
retention at the end of Sense-sphere javanas to the Sense-sphere
beings, only when Sense-sphere phenomena become objects.
? 10. Retention occurs,
they say, in connection with 'clear' and 'very great' objects when
there is certainty as regards the Sense-sphere javanas, beings, and
Herein this is the
procedure of retention.
12. Objects -
The desirability or
undesirability of an object is determined not according to individual
temperament, but according to its intrinsic nature. The resultant
consciousness conditioned thereby is regarded as the effect of one's good
or bad action.
The sight of the Buddha will
perhaps be repulsive to a staunch heretic. His javana thoughts will
naturally be unwholesome. But the passive wholesome resultant
eye-consciousness, caused by a past good kamma, is a kusala vipaka. This
vipaka is not conditioned by his will, but is an inevitable consequence.
The javana process, on the contrary, is conditioned by his own will.
Again, for instance, the mere
sight of excreta will be a source of delight to an ordinary dog. The
object is generally undesirable and is a bad effect (akusala vipaka), but
the javana process caused thereby will be wholesome to the dog. The
accompanying feeling will also be pleasurable.
Although even an Arahat
experiences an akusala vipaka at the sight of an undesirable object, his
javana process will neither be wholesome nor unwholesome. The accompanying
feeling will be one of equanimity.
Now, when an undesirable object
is presented either through the mind-door or five sense-doors, the
sense-impressions, reception, investigation, retention that occur in the
respective thought-processes, are all bad effects (akusala vipakas). The
accompanying feeling is invariably upekkha, except in the case of
body-impression which is dukkha. These thought-moments are the inevitable
results of past bad actions.
If the presented object is
desirable, then the afore-said thought-moments are all good effects
(kusala vipakas). Here too the accompanying feeling is upekkha, except in
the case of body-impression which is sukha. All these thought-moments are
the results of past good actions.
When the object is extremely
desirable, the feeling of the santirana moment differs. Instead of upekkha
it is somanassa.
The tadarammanas followed by
Sense sphere functional javanas, accompanied by pleasure, are also
associated with a similar feeling. Likewise the upekkha javanas are
followed by upekkha tadarammanas.
As a rule the preceding javanas
and the subsequent tadarammanas possess a similar feeling. Somanassa is
followed by somanassa, and upekkha by upekkha.
What happens when the javanas
are accompanied by domanassa as there are no domanassa tadarammanas?
If the rebirth-consciousness
(patisandhi-citta) of the person is accompanied by somanassa, then when
javanas are accompanied by domanassa, the tadarammanas, if they occur,
will be accompanied by equanimity (upekkha-sahagata), but if tadarammanas
do not occur, then an adventitious upekkha santirana, without any special
function, will intervene for one moment. This adventitious thought-moment
is technically termed agantukabhavanga. Usually the object of the javanas
and that of the tadarammanas are identical. But in this particular case
the objects differ. The object of this santirana is another kamavacara
object with which one is familiar in the course of one's life. This object
is termed paritta (smaller or lesser) in comparison with the higher rupa,
arupa and lokuttara objects.
If, on the other hand, the
rebirth-consciousness is not associated with somanassa, then the
tadarammanas therein become upekha as are the bhavangas that follow.
It should be noted that
tadarammanas occur only at the end of kamavacara javanas, only to
kamavacara beings, and only in connection with kamavacara objects, which
are either 'very intense' or 'clear.'
of Javana (13)
? 11. Javanesu ca
parittajavanavithiyam kamavacarajavanani sattakkhattum chakkhattum'
eva va javanti.
yamakapatihariyakaladisu lahukappavattiyam cattari pava
paccavekkhanacittani bhavanti' ti pi vadanti.
pathamakappanayam mahaggatajavanani, abhiavanani ca sabbada pi
ekavaram eva javanti Tato param bhavangapato.
Cattaro pana magguppada
ekacittakkhanika. Tato param dve tini phalacittani yatharaham
uppajjanti. Tato param bhavangapato.
dvikkhattum catuttharuppajavanam javati. Tato param nirodham
phusati. Vutthanakale ca anagami phalam va arahattaphalam va
yatharaham ekavaram uppajjitva niruddhe bhavangapato' va
samapattivithiyam pana bhavvangasoto viya vithiniyamo natthi' ti
katva bahuni pi labbhanti' ti, veditabbam.
? 12. Sattakkhattum
Avasesani labhanti javanani bahuni'pi.
Ayam' ettha Javana-Niyamo.
? 11. Amongst the
javanas, in a minor process, the sense-sphere javanas run only for
seven or six times.
But in the case of a
feeble process and at the time of dying, etc., only five times.
To the Exalted One, at
the time of the 'Twin Psychic Phenomenon' and the like, when the
procedure is alert, only four or five reflective thought-moments
arise, they say.
To the beginner, during
the first ecstasy, the Sublime javanas and super-intellect javanas
run only once at all times. Subsequently there is subsidence into
The arising of the four
Paths endures for only one thought-moment. Thereafter two or three
Fruit thought-moments arise accordingly. Then comes subsidence into
At the time of Supreme
Cessation (14) the fourth arupa javana runs twice and then contacts
Cessation. When emerging (from this ecstasy) either Anagami
Fruit-consciousness or Arahatta Fruit-consciousness arises
accordingly. When it ceases there is subsidence into the
In the process of
Attainments there is no regularity of thought-processes, as in the
stream of the life-continuum. Nevertheless, it should be understood
that many (Sublime and Supramundane) javanas take place.
? 12. It should be known
that minor javanas arise seven times, the Path and Super-intellect
only once, the rest (Sublime and Supramundane) several times.
Herein this is the
procedure of javanas.
13. Javana -
As it is difficult to give an
adequate English rendering for javana, the Pali term has been retained
Both psychologically and
ethically javana thought-moments are the most important, as both good and
evil are determined at this stage.
Sometimes the javanas last only
for one moment. At times they may continue for seven moments at the most.
Kamavacara javanas, as a rule,
last only for six or seven moments. When one is in a senseless state or is
about to die, javanas are confined to five moments.
When the Buddha, by His psychic
powers, emits fire and water, almost simultaneously, from His body, only
four or five javana thought-moments arise so as to reflect on the jhana
factors, which is a prerequisite, for the performance of this 'Twin
In the case of a yogi who
develops the first jhana for the first time, javana lasts only for one
moment. So is it with those who develop the five abhi - namely,
i. Psychic Powers (Iddhividha),
ii. Celestial Ear (Dibba Sota),
iii. Celestial Eye (Dibba Cakkhu),
iv. Reading of Others' Thoughts (Paracittavijanana), and
Reminiscence of Previous Births (Pubbe-nivasanussati ).
The four classes of
supramundane javana Path-consciousness also last for one moment only. It
is at this great moment that Nibbana is intuited.
14. Nirodha Samapatti
An Anagami or an Arahat, who
has developed the rupa and arupa jhanas, could, by will-power, temporarily
arrest the ordinary flow of consciousness even for seven days
continuously. When one attains this state, all mental activities cease,
although there exist heat and life devoid of any breathing. The difference
between a corpse and one in this state, is that the latter possesses life.
Books state too that his body cannot be harmed. The attainment of such an
ecstatic state is known as nirodha samapatti. Nirodha means cessation, and
samapatti is attainment.
Immediately prior to the
attainment of this state he experiences for two moments the fourth arupa
jhana (state of neither perception nor non-perception). The flow of
consciousness then ceases until he emerges therefrom as determined by him.
As a rule he remains in this state for about a week. Motionless he abides
in this ecstasy. Books relate an incident of a Pacceka Buddha whose body
was set fire to while in this state. But he was not affected thereby.
Now when he emerges from this
state the first thought-moment to arise is an Anagami Fruit-consciousness
in the case of an Anagami, or an Arahat Fruit-consciousness in the case of
an Arahat. Thereafter the stream of consciousness subsides into
? 13. Duhetukanam
ahetukanapan'ettha kriya-javanani c'eva appanajavanani ca na
labbhanti. Tatha sampayuttavipakani ca sugatiyam, duggatiyam pana
vippayuttani ca maha-vipakani na labbhanti.
khinasavanam kusalakusala-javanani ca na labbhanti'ti. Tatha
sekkhaputhu-jjananam kriyajavanani. Ditthigatasampayuttavicik
cchajavanani ca sekkhanam. Anagami-puggalanam pana patighajavanani
ca na labbhanti. Lokuttarajavanani ca yathasakamariyanam eva
? 14. Asekkhanam
catucattalisasekkhanam uddise Chapaavasesanam catupaa sambhava.
Ayam ettha puggalabhedo.
? 13. Herein, to those
whose rebirth-consciousness is conditioned by two roots (alobha and
adosa) and conditioned by none, functional javanas and ecstatic
javanas (*1) do not arise. Likewise, in a happy plane, resultants,
accompanied by knowledge, also do not arise (*2). But in a woeful
state they do not also get great resultants dissociated with
To the Corruption-freed
(Arahats) amongst those whose rebirth-consciousness is conditioned
by three roots, no moral nor immoral javanas arise. Similarly to the
Sekhas and worldlings functional javanas do not arise. Nor do the
javanas connected with misbelief and doubts arise to the Sekhas.(*3)
To the Anagami individuals there are no javanas connected with
aversion. (*4) But the supramundane javanas are experienced only by
Ariyas (*5) according to their respective capacities.
? 14. As they arise it is
stated that Asekhas experience 44 (*6), Sekhas 56 (*7), and the rest
54 (*8) classes of consciousness.
Herein this is the
classification of individuals.
(*1) It is only a
tihetuka individual that could develop Jhanas or attain
(*2) Owing to the
inferiority of the rebirth-consciousne tihetuha tadalambanas do not
(*3) Because they are
eradicated on attaining sotapatti.
(*4) Because an Anagami
eradicates sense-desires and aversion.
(*5) All the four classes
of Saints are called Ariyas because they are far removed from
(*6) Namely, 18 ahetukas
+ 16 sobhana kriya and vipaka, + 9 rupa and arupa kriya, + 1
(*7) Namely, 7 akusalas +
21 (8+ 5 + 4 + 4) kusalas + 23 kamavacara vipakas + 2 avajjanas + 3
(*8) To worldlings 54,
namely, 12 akusalas + 17 ahetukas + 16 sobhana kusala and vipakas +
9 rupa and arupakusalas.
Kamavacarabhumiyam pan' etani sabbani 'pi vithicittani
yatharaham upalabbhanti. Rupavacarabhumiyam
pathamamaggarupavacarahasanahetthimaruppavajjitani ca labbhanti.
Sabbattha'pi ca tam
pasadarahitanam tam tam dvarikavithicittani na labbhant' eva.
sabbatha'pi cittappavatti natth'eva'ti.
Asitivithicittani kame rupe yatharaham
? 17. Icc'evam
chadvarikacittappavatti yathasambhavam bhavangantarita
yavatayukamabbhocchinna pavattati' ti.
Abhidhammattha-Sangahe Vithi-Sangaha-Vibhago nama
? 15. In the Sense sphere
all these foregoing thought-processes occur according to
On the Plane of Form
(all) with the exception of javanas connected with aversion and
On the Formless Plane
(all) with the exception of the First Path, rupavacara
consciousness, smiling consciousness, and the lower arupa classes of
In all planes, to those
who are devoid of sense-organs, thought-processes connected with
corresponding doors do not arise.
To those individuals
without consciousness there is absolutely no mental process
? 16. In the
sense-sphere, according to circumstances, 80 (*1) thought-processes
are obtained, on the Plane of Form 64 (*2), on the Formless Plane 42
Herein this is the
section on Planes.
? 17. Thus the
thought-processes connected with six doors, as they arise, continue
without any break, intercepted by bavangas, while life lasts.
Thus ends the fourty
chapter in the Compendium of Abhidhamma, entitled the Analysis of
(*1) Namely, 54
kamavacaras + 18 rupa and arupa kusalas and kriyas + 8 lokuttaras =
(*2) Namely, 10 akusalas
(excluding 2 patighas) + 9 ahetuka vipakas (excluding kaya, ghana
and jivha vias) + 3 ahetuka kriyas + 16 kamavacara kusalas and
kriyas + 10 rupa kusalas aud kriyas + 8 arupa kusalas and kriyas + 8
lokuttaras = 64.
(*3) Namely, 10 akusalas
+ 1 manodvaravajjana + 16 kamavacara kusalas and kriyas + 8 arupa
kusalas and kriyas + 7 lokuttaras (excluding sotapatti magga) =
Diagram IX -
When, for instance, a visible
object enters the mind through the eye-door, a thought-process runs as
Pavara citta vithi - Ati
Immediately after this five
sense-door thought-process, the stream of consciousness subsides into
bhavanga. Then there arises a mind-door thought-process perceiving the
aforesaid visible object mentally as follows -
2 - 8
9 - 10
Again the stream of
consciousness subsides into bhavanga, and two more similar
thought-processes arise before the object is actually known.
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