The subject of today's study is mental factors. We learned something about menta factors in lecture two. Mental factors are one of the four ultimate realities. They are called Cetasika in Pàli. They are defined as those which arise together with Citta. They always accompany Cittas. Their characteristics are arising together with Citta, perishing together with Citta, having the same object as Citta and also having the same base as Citta. 'Base' means eye, ear, nose, tongue, body and heart. They have the same base as the Citta. They are actually sttes of mind.

   They are like color in water. Citta is like pure water. Cetasikas are like colors. When a Citta comes into combination with some of the Cetasikas, that Citta is said to be beautiful or a wholesome Citta, or it is said to be an unwholesome Citta depending upon whether the mental factors are wholesome or unwholesome, beautiful or not beautiful.

   There are altogether 52 of these mental factors. They are grouped as Aññasamàna (common to others). There are 13 common to others. There are 14 unwholesome Cetasikas and 25 beautiful Cetasikas.

   The first group, the common to others, has 13 Cetasikas. They are called Aññasamàna in Pàli. It is a strange name. 'Añña' means other. 'Sàmana' means common. So they are called common to others or Aññasamàna because they are compatible both with Sobhana or beautiful Cittas and the not beautiful or Asobhana Cittas as well.

   Can you distinguish beautiful Cittas and not beautiful Cittas on the chart? The first four columns are non-beautiful. The rest are beautiful.

   These Cetasikas are compatible both with beautiful and non-beautiful Cittas. They are called Aññasamàna. With regard to beautiful Cittas the non-beautiful Cittas are called 'other'. It is relative. If you are on this side, then the other side is the 'other'. If you are on the other side, then this side is the 'other'. Since they are common to both beautiful and non-beautiful Cittas, they are called 'Aññasamàna' (commn to others).

   These 13 Cetsikas are subdivided into two groups. The first group is universals or in Pàli Sabbacittasàdhàrana. There are seven of them. The other group is called particulars or Pakinnaka.

   So the first group consists of seven and they are called universals. Literally they are common to all Cittas. Literally they are common to all Cittas. Sàdhàrana and Samàna have the same meaning here - to be common to. 'Sabba' means all and 'Citta' means Citta. So the meaning is common to all Cittas. They accompany all Cittas or each and every one of the Cittas. Whenever any Citta arises, these seven accompany that Citta. So Citta is never without one of these seven mental factors. Therefore they are called universals. We can call them common to all.

   The first is  - I did them Pàli also so that we will not misunderstand. The first one is Phassa in Pàli. It is called contact. It is the contact of the sense organs and the object. When there is the coming together of sense organ, object and consciousness, this contact also arises. It is not just the coming together of the three, the senses, the object and consciousness. Phassa arises through the coming together of these three. When an object comes into the avenue of one of the senses, there is this coming together of the object and the sense. When these two come together, the Citta (consciousness) also arises. nd when these three come together, contact also arises.

   There are some similes given by the Commentators to help us understand them better. On the sheet the similes which I found in the Commentaries are given. Contact is compred to a hideless cow because it is the habitat of feeling. This is not its characteristic. If you remember the teaching of Dependent Origination, Vedanà or feeling arises conditioned by contact. When a cow is hideless, when you skin a cow and it has no hide, then all sorts of insects (flies, gnats, mosquitoes) come and bite it. Contact is the habitat of feeling. That means contact is the condition for feeling. Therefore contact is compared to a hideless cow.

   There are other similes given and they are more convincing. They are water in the mouth of one who sees another tasting vinegar or a ripe mango or maybe it is a sour mango.Whenever you see someone eat something that is sour, your mouth gets water. This is caused by contact.

   The body shuttering in sympathetic person who sees another being hurt is another simile. If somebody is hitting some other person, you get some trembling of the body. Trembling of a timid person who sees a man standing precariously balanced on a high tree branch is another simile. You may have been to a circus. When you see someone on the tightrope, you hve such feeling in your heart, in your chest. That is because of Phassa.

   Loss of power of legs in one who sees something very terrifying such as a Pisàca. Pisàca is a Pàli word which means goblin or ghost. When somebody sees a ghost, he cannot run. He loses power in his legs. It is said that when dogs see tigers or leopards or even get the smell of a leopard, they cannot run. They become lame. That is out of contact. Contact is like that.

   It is not just the coming together of the senses, the object and consciousness, but it arises through the coming together of these three.

   I think we will have to rush. There are 52 Cetasikas.

   The second one is Vedanà or feeling. I think you are familiar with feeling. There are pleasurable feeling, displeasurable feeling, neutral feeling, and also there are two more feelings depending on the sensations in the body - Sukha and Dukkha.

   Feeling is compared to a king who enjoys the taste of good food. Other mental factors also experience or enjoy the object, but it is Vedanà that fully enjoys the taste of the object. That is why it is called feeling or Vedanà.

   The next one is Saññà (perception). 'Perception' here means making mark so that you recognize it when you experience it later. It is like carpenters making marks on timber etc. I don't know if they put marks on timber in this country because most things are ready-made in this country. If you want to know later this part is to be cut off, this part is to be retined, then you put marks on them. Through these marks the carpenters know which are to be sawed off and which are to be retained. In the same way Saññà makes marks or recognizes signs so that it can recognize something when it comes into contact with it later. This is perception, making marks.

   Sometimes perception can be very eratic. We take a rope for a snake. We take a shrub shaking at night for a ghost. This is the result of wrong perception.

   The next one is Cetanà (volition). It is very important. What we call Kamma is this mental factor. We will have occasion for talking about Kamma later in this series of talks. Kamma is described as action - good action, bad action. In fact technically speaking Kamma is volition or something like will in the mind that arises when we do something, or speak something and so on. So Cetanà or volition is the real Kamma although Kamma is popularly defined as good action or bad action. This Kamma or Cetanà is very important among the 52 Cetasikas because it is through this Cetanà (volition) that we acquire Kusala or Akusala and get the results of both Kusala and Akusala.

   Volition is compared to a senior pupil or a head carpenter. That means Cetanà urges others to do their own duties and also does its own duty. It is like a senior pupil or head capenter. He does his own work and he sees to it that others work. In the same way Cetanà helps others to do their own duties and also does its own duty. So it is important.

   The fifth is Ekaggatà (one-pointedness of mind). In other words it is Samàdhi (concentration). When we say concentration, we really mean this mental factor, Ekaggatà. The literal meaning of this word is having one object. That means mind dwelling on one object for a period of time.

   The sixth mental factor is Jìvitindriya (life faculty). Here 'life faculty' means the life faculty of mental life. There is also another Jìvitindriya among the material properties.

   Life faculty is compared to water in lotus stalk. The water in the lotus stalk keeps the lotus stalk from getting withered. In the same way this life faculty maintains the associated mental factors. It does not produce them, but it maintains them. It helps them to exist. That is why it is called Jìvitindriya (mental life faculty).

   The last one is Manasikàra (attention). Every act of mind needs some kind of attention. Attention is compared to the driver of a chariot with many horses. That means attention is just paying attention to the object and it does not get involved in falling to this side or to the other side. It is like equanimity driving the horses when the horses are going evenly.

   These seven are called Sabbacittasadhàrana or seven universals. All these are present with every type of consciousness. At every moment of consciousness all these can be experienced. We may not know or may not be aware of all seven at the same time, but we can be aware of some of these mental factors especially during the practice of Vipassanà meditation.

   The next group is Pakinnaka, the particulars. 'Pakinnaka' literally means scattered. The Pakinnakas are called scattered because although they are common to both Sobhana and Asobhana Cittas, they do not arise with each and every one of them. They are common to sobhana and Asobhana alike, but they are not common to every one of these Cittas. They are common to or arise together with some of these Cittas and do not arise with other Cittas. Therefore they come into combination with Cittas in a scattered way. That is why they are called Pakinnaka in Pàli. They are translated as particulars.

   There are six of them. How many of them have we already met? The first one, initial application, we have met. It is a factor of Jhàna. 'Initial application of mind' (Vitakka) means taking the mind to the object. The second one, Vicàra (sustained application) is keeping the mind there. In many types of consciousness these two arise together, but in some only one of them arises.

   The difference between Vitakka and Vicàra is on another sheet. You have to go to the sheets back and forth. The first impact of the mind on the object is Vitakka and the act of keeping mind anchored to the object is Vicàra. Vitakka takes the mind to the object and Vicàra keeps it there.

   Vitakka is like the first striking of a bell. You hear the sound. Then Vicàra is like the ringing of the bell. After you strike the bell, it rings for some time. Vicàra is like that.

   Vitakka is like a bird spreading out its wings when it is about to soar out into the air. (like an airplane about to rise into the air) Vicàra is like the bird planing with outspread wings after soaring out into the air, so flying or gliding through the air.

   Vitakka is like a bee diving towards a otus. Vicàra is like the bee buzzing above the lotus.

   Vitakka is like the hand that grips firmly. Vicàra is like the hand that rubs. That means when you want to clean a vessel then you grip the vessel with one hand and clean it with the other hand. Vitakka is like gripping the vessel and Vicàra is like rubbing the vessel.

   Although Vitakka and Vicàra arise together at the same time with one particular Citta, they have this difference.

   The tenth one is Adhimokkha which is decision. There is some kind of decision with many Cittas. This decision is compared to a door-post because when you decide something, you are firm on it. There is firmness in it. So it is compared to a door-post

    The next one is Vìriya or effort or energy.This is mental effort or mental energy, not physical. Physical effort may be some other thing. 'Vìriya' means  mental effort. It is evident when you practice meditation. You need mental effort to keep your mind on the object. Without mental effort your mind will not stay there. You have to put forth effort when you practice meditation.

   Effort is that which supports other mental factors. So it is compared to a supporting pillar. When a house is old and not strong, you have to put some pillars or posts to keep it from falling down. You have not seen such pillars or posts in this country. In Asia you may have seen some old houses supported by extra posts or pillars.

   Also effort is compared to reinforcements in the army. Suppose there is a battle and fighting. One side is losing and then reinforcements come and they become strong again. Vìriya is like that. When you have Vìriya, you become strong. You can do what you like. You can practice meditation and so on.

Student: Inaudible.

Sayàdaw: Making a choice is Adhimokkha.

   Then there is Pìti (joy). Now you see Pìti (joy) is not feeling in Abhidhamma. Vedanà is one thing and Pìti is another. They coexist or arise together. Plesurable feeling and Pìti are two different things in Abhidhamma. Pìti is an interest in pleasurable things. Sukha or happiness is the real enjoyment of that pleasurable thing or object. The difference between Pìti and Sukha is to be noted also.

   On the sheet we have the difference between Pìti and Sukha. Contentedness at getting a desirable object - when you get a desirable object and you are contented with it, there is Pìti. When you actually experience it, then you get Sukha.

   When a man exhausted in the desert sees or hears about a pond on the edge of a wood, that is Pìti. When he goes into the wood and uses the water, that is Sukha.

   When you hear there is going to be a dinner, then you have Pìti. When you are actually enjoying the dinner, there is Sukha.

   Where there is Pìti, there is Sukha. Pìti is always accompanied by Sukha. But where there is Sukha, there is not necessarily Pìti. Sometimes Sukha may not be accompanied by Pìti. So whenever there is Pìti, there is Sukha, but whenever there is Sukha, there may not always be Pìti.

   You my not understand it. When we study the combinations of Cittas and Cetasikas, we will come to that. You remember Jhàna consciousness, right? In the third Jhàna consciousness how many factors are there? Three - Pìti, Sukha and Ekaggatà. But in the fourth Jhàna there is Sukha and Ekaggatà, no Pìti. So there can be Sukha without Pìti, but there is never Pìti without Sukha.

   Pìti is included in Sankhàra Khandha and Sukha is included in Vedanà Khandha. 'Sankhàra Khandha' means the aggregate of mental formations. 'Vedanà Khandha' means the aggregate of feeling. I hope you are familiar with the teaching of five aggregates. There is the aggregate of matter or corporeality, the aggregate of feeling, the aggregate of perception, the aggregate of mental formations and the aggregate of consciousnes. Pìti belongs to Sankhàra (the mental formations group) and Sukha belongs to Vedanà (the feeling group). They are different.

   The last one is Chanda (conation). Conation is a peculiar word. It is not much used, right? It is some kind of desire, but when we say 'desire', we tend to connect it with attachment. So I don't want to call it 'desire', but it is a kind of desire without attachment. It can be accompanied by attachment. It is just the will to do. It is something like intention. It is the will to do.

   It is compared to what? Extending the hand to pick up something. You extend your hand to pick up something. Chanda or conation is compared to that. You are not attached to the thing. You just pick it up.

   Another example is the archer picking up the arrow to shoot. He has no attachment to the arrow, but he picks it up to shoot. His extending of the hand is like Chanda.

   There can be good or wholesome Chanda and there can be bad or unwholesome Chanda. The desire to practice meditation, the desire to help others, the desire to study Dhamma is good Chanda. Desire to possess things, desire to hurt other people is unwholesome Chanda. So Chanda can be wholesome or unwholesome.

Student: What is the difference between the functions of Cetanà and Chanda?

Sayàdaw: Chanda is the mere will, just the mere desire to do. Cetanà has something like force, like action. Cetanà is the most active among the 50 Cetasikas. That is why the third aggregate is called Sankhàra Khandha. That means a group of Cetasikas headed by Sankhàra. These are the six particulars.

   The next group is the unwholesome (Akusala). There are altogether 14 of them. The first of them is Moha (delusion or ignorance). 'Moha' can mean not knowing as well as knowing wrongly. If you know something wrongly, it is Moha. And if you don't know about things, if you don't know about the nature of things, then that is also Moha.

   No simile is given in the Commentaries, but our teacher said that Moha is comparable to smoke or clouds. When there is smoke, you cannot see clearly. When there are clouds, you cannot see things. So Moha is like smoke or clouds.

   The next one is Ahirika (moral shamelessness). It is shamelessness in doing things that are immoral, that are unwholesome.

   Anottappa, the next one, is moral fearlessness. That means there is no fear, one is not afraid to do anything immoral.

   Moral shamelessness is compared to a village pig which is not disgusted by excretement. Moral fearlessness is compared to a moth which is not afraid of fire. It just flies into the fire and gets burned. There are counterparts of them among the beautiful Cetasikas. We will come to them later.

   Number 17 is Uddhacca. You have met Uddhacca (restlessness). This is restlessness of mind. That means it is the mind's inability to really be on the object. It is a little away from the object, a little removed from the object.

   Restlessness is compared to water whipped by the wind. When there is wind, then the water is not calm. Another example is when you throw a stone into a heap of ashes. The ashes come up and so it is not clear. Restlessness is like that.

   18 is Lobha (attachment). It is not difficult to understand. We always experience Lobha.

   It is compared to monkey-lime. It is a glue. Actually it is a glue you get from a tree. It is sticky. You have something which you catch flies with, flypaper. It is something like that. Lobha is like monkey-lime. It is sticky.

   The next one is Ditthi (wrong view). There is no simile for Ditthi. It is taking things to be permanent, believing there is no rebirth, believing there is no Kamma and that there are no results of Kamma, and so on. Taking that way or believing that way is called Ditthi (wrong view). ´

Student: Inaudible.

Sayàdaw: Moha has the characteristic of covering the object so that you do not see it clearly. Ditthi takes it not as it really is.

   The word 'Ditthi' literally just means view, not wrong or right. But in most cases the word 'Ditthi' is used for wrong view. There is one word, Sammàditthi, among the eight factors of Path. In the Noble Eightfold Path there is Right Understanding or Right Knowledge. There it is Sammàditthi. 'Sammà' means right, so right view or right knowledge. But in most cases Ditthi is used to mean wrong view.

   The next one is Màna (conceit, pride). It is like madness. It is like a banner. Thatmeans the flag is always up there. When you are proud, you are always up there.

   Dosa (illwill) is the next one. Dosa means anger, hatred, and also depression and also fear. Fear is a kind of Dosa in Abhidhamma. It is passive Dosa while anger is active Dosa.

   Then there is Issa (jealousy). That means when you are prosperous, I don't like it. It is something like that. That is jealousy (Issa).

   The next one is Macchariya or avariciousness. Macchariya always accompanies the two Cittas that are accompanied by illwill. It is always with Domanassa and Dosa. Avariciousness is not stinginess. It is something like intolerance of one's property being common to others.

   Suppose I have this thing. I want to use it for myself. Then if you come and use it, I don't like it. That intolerance is what we mean by Macchariya (avariciousness). So Macchariya does not accompany Lobha. It accompanies Dosa although it may be caused by attachment. Because I am attached to this thing and if someone comes and uses it, I don't like it.

   The next one is Kukkucca (remorse). It is remorse for having done something wrong in the past or having not done something good in the past. Both are called remorse. Sometimes we did something wrong and we repent. Sometimes we did not do something good and we repent for that. Remorse has these two aspects.

Student: Inaudible.

Sayàdaw: When remorse comes to your mind, your mind is not accompanied by good feeling. That is why remorse is said to be unwholesome. It has something of the nature of Dosa. When remorse comes to you, you don't feel good. You feel something like displeasure.

   The next ones, 25 and 26, are Thina and Middha. They are always together. Sloth and torpor - actually they are sluggishness of Citta and sluggishness of the Cetasikas. Sloth and torpor are almost always with us when we practice meditation. You sit for some time and you begin to feel sleepy. That means sloth and torpor are coming to you.

   The last cone is Vicikicchà. It accompanies the eleventh of the twelve Akusala Cittas. It is doubt, doubt about the Buddha, the Dhamma, the Sangha, doubt about the way to liberation, doubt about Dependent Origination, and other things. It is not just ordinary doubt. It is doubt about the Buddha, the Dhamma and the Sangha. It is Vicikicchà.

    These fourteen Cetasikas are common to the twelve unwholesome Cittas only. They will not accompany any other Cittas. They will accompany only one, or two, or some of the unwholesome Cittas.

   The next group is Sobhana (beautiful). They are called beautiful because they have beautiful qualities.

Student: Inaudible.

Sayàdaw: It is always accompanies displeasurable feeling, in Pàli Domanassa. Number 21, 21, 23, 24 - these four always accompany the two Cittas rooted in illwill among the twelve unwholesome Cittas. So they are always accompànied by displeasurable feeling.

Student: Inaudible.

Sayàdaw: They have the common characteristic of making the Citta different, making the Citta worse or something. When we are happy or we feel good, the Citta is said to be in the normal state. When there is anger in us or there is depression in us, it is said to be destroyed by anger or illwill. Its good nature is destroyed. It becomes bad or something. These have this common nature which makes us feel bad. They always accompany one of the two Cittas rooted in illwill or hatred.

   The next group is beautiful. There are 25 of them. The first 19 are common to all beaautiful Cittas. They will accompany every one of the beautiful types of consciousness. That means from the fifth column onwards on the chart. The first four columns are Asobhana (non-beautiful) Cittas. The rest are beautiful. These 19 will accompany every one of the Cittas in these columns.

   The first one is Saddhà which is faith or confidence. Confidence I think is the better word for Saddhà because we do not mean blind faith. We mean faith founded upon knowledge or wisdom. So it is better to translate it as confidence, but you may say faith if you like.

   It is compared to a water-clearing gem. That means when we have faith, when we have confidence, our minds become clear. So it is like a water-clearing gem.

   In the olden days there was a universal monarch. It is said that they possessed a kind of gem called a water-clearing gem. When they went out for fighting or whatever, they could not get clear water. Then the king would put the gem in the water. As soon as the gem was put in the water, the water became clean. That is the water-clearing gem. In the same way our Cittas may be clouded by unwholesome mental factors, but when confidence enters our mind or when confidence arises in our mind or our Cittas, then our Cittas become clear. Therefore confidence or Saddhà is compared to a water-clearing gem.

   Also Saddhà is compared to plunging into the flood. That means it is something like bravery. When you have faith, when you have confidence, you do things with courage. It is something like that. When you lack faith, you don't dare to do things. You are afraid of mistakes or you are afraid of failure. When you have confidence, you just do it. So it is like plunging into the flood. There is a man who comes and says, 'Just follow me.) and he plunges into the flood.

   The next one is mindfulness (Sati) or remembering. Sati is really remembering, mindfulness. It is similar to perception. When you have strong perception, then you have good mindfulness.

   Number 30 is Hiri (moral shame) and number 31 is Ottappa (moral fear). Hiri is shame to do immoral things and Ottappa is fear to do immoral things. These two are said to be the protectors of society. So long as these two exist in the people, then the society is in good shape.

   Hiri (moral shame) is compared to a respectable woman thinking of her birth, thinking of her reputation, she is disgusted with doing wrong things or she is disgusted with being unfaithful.

   Ottappa (moral fear) is compared to a courtesan. A courtesan is afraid of getting pregnant.

Student: That doesn't translate for us.

Sayàdaw: Yes, you have to think of the olden days. You do not do something for fear of censure from others. It is something like that. That's called Ottappa (moral fear).

   The next one is Alobha (non-attachment). It is compared to a water-drop on a lotus leaf. The drop of water does not stick to the lotus leaf. Non-attachment is like that.

   Adosa is non-hatred, goodwill. Adosa is simply loving-kindness. Loving-kindness is Adosa, non-hatred, goodwill. It is compared to a gentle friend, a person who is friendly to us.

   The next one is Tatramajjhattà (a long name) or equanimity. Tatramajjhattà really means being in the middle, not falling into pleasure or displeasure, or not falling into attachment or hatred.

   It is compared to the driver of a chariot with many horses. When the horses are running smoothly, the driver doesn't have to be concerned about the horses. So the driver is something like indifferent to the horses. Equanimity is like that.

   Equanimity is very refined in the states of Jhàna although it is not one of the Jhàna factors. In the Suttas sometimes equanimity is called 'Upekkhà'. It is very important to understand when you come across this word 'Upekkhà' in Pàli whether it means feeling Upekkhà or this equanimity. Sometimes Upekkhà is used for equanimity and sometimes it is used for indifferent feeling.

   Then we have pairs - Kàya-passaddhi and Citta-passaddhi, tranquility of Nàma Kàya and tranquility of Citta. Here 'Nàma Kàya' means Cetasikas, Kàya Cetasikas, mental factors. 'Nàma' means mental and 'Kàya' means group. 'Mental group' here means Cetasikas. The first one is tranquility fo Nàma Kàya. The second one is Citta Passaddhi, tranquility of Citta.

   The next group is Kàya-lahutà and Citta-lahutà. It is lightness of Nàma Kàya and lightness of Citta. Sometimes you feel lightness in your mind and sometimes your mind is heavy.

   Then there is Kàya-mudutà and Citta-mudutà, pliancy of Nàma Kàya and pliancy of Citta. 'Mudutà' really means softness.It is compared to leather well tanned.

   Then there is Kàya-kammaññatà and Citta-kammaññatà, adaptability of Nàma Kàya and adaptability of Citta. It is compared to the refining of gold. That means when gold is refined, it is easy to make thing out of gold. It is like when iron is hot, you can make it into any shape you like.

Student: Malleability?

Sayàdaw: Yes. It is difficult to pronounce that word.

   Then we have Kàya-paguññatà and Citta-paguññatà, proficiency of Nàma Kàya and proficiency of Citta. Similes are not given for them.

   Then there is Kàyujukatà and Cittujukatà, rectitude or straightness of Nàma Kàya and straightness of Citta.

Student: Inaudible.

Sayàdaw: The Pàli word 'Paguññatà' means being familiar with. Familiarity with Cetasikas and familiarity with Citta is meant here. That is translated as proficiency here. If you are familiar with a subject, you are said to be Paguna with regard to that subject. Paguna is the word from which the word Paguññatà is derived.  

   Kàyujukatà and Cittujukatà are rectitude or straightness of Cetasikas and Citta.

   These 19 are common to all beautiful types of consciousness.

   The next group is the abstinences. They are Sammà-vàcà (Right Speech), Sammà-kammanta (Right Action) and Sammà-àjìva (Right Livelihood). Where do you find these three? Among the factors of the Noble Eightfold Path. The middle three are are called Right Speech, Right Action and Right Livelihood. According to Abhidhamma they are called Virati (abstinences). That means only when you abstain from something do they arise in your mind. Otherwise they are not present. Maybe this is the negative aspect of Right Speech and so on. Since they are called abstinences, they only arise when you abstain from something, from some wrong-doing or evil conduct or whatever.

   Suppose there is an occasion for kiling an animal. You refrain from killing it. Then at that moment this will be Right Action or Sammà-kammanta arising in your mind. When you are meditating, it will not arise in your mind because you have no occasion to refrain or abstain from killing. You just sit and practice meditation.

Student: Does it arise when you abstain from thinking a negative thought?

Sayàdaw: No. It has to do with speech, action and livelihood. Abstention from wrong speech means abstentionfrom lying, harsh speech, backbiting and talking nonsense. That is Right Speech. Abstention from wrong-doing is abstaining from killing, stealing, and sexual misconduct. That is Right Action. Abstention from wrong livelihood - wrong livelihood is earning one's livelihood by hurting people or killing. There are some trades that a person who wants to keep his livelihood pure should not do, like selling poison, selling weapons and so on.

   With regard to the abstinences the Commentaries say there are three kinds - abstinence as occasion arises, abstinence through observance of precepts and abstinence through total eradication of defilements. So there are three kinds of abstinences. The first one is abstinence as the occasion arises. That means you do not take any precepts, but when the occasion arises, you abstain from it. You do not take any of the precepts, but there is an occasion for you to kill let us say. You do not kill. You abstain from killing. That kind of abstinence is called abstinence as occasion arises.

   There is a story of two brothers whose mother was ill. The physician said that the flesh of a hare was required. The elder brother sent the younger brother to the forest to catch a hare. The younger brother went into the forest. When the hare saw him, he tried to run away but was caught in the creepers. It made some noise. The younger brother went there and caught the hare. After catching it, he thought, 'It is not right for me to take a life in order to save another.' He wanted to save the life of his mother, but still he thought that it was not right to do this. So he went back home.

   His elder brother asked him if he had caught a hare. The younger brother told him what happened. The elder brother scolded him. It is said that the younger brother went to his mother and said some words of truth. he said, 'I do not remember having intentionally taken the life of a creature since I was born.' He said this as an asservation of truth. 'By saying this truth or by the power of this truthful saying, may my mother get well.' His mother was then healed. That kind of abstention is abstention as occasion arises. He did not take any precepts before that, but he abstained from it when the occasion arose.

   The second one is the abstinence through the observance of precepts. In this case you take some precepts. Then an occasion arises where you can or you may kil, and you do not kill because you say to yourself, 'I have taken the precepts. I must keep them.' So you abstain from it. That is abstinence through the observance of precepts.

   There was a man, a farmer, it is said in the books. He went to plow his field. But before he went to plow his field, he went to the village monk and took precepts from him. Then he went to the field to plow. While he was plowing, the ox got lost. He went in search of his ox. He went up into the mountains. In the mountains he was caught by a big snake. The snake coiled around him. He had an axe in his hand. At first he thought, 'I will cut off the head of this snake.' Later he said to himself, 'I have taken precepts from a very revered teacher. It is not good for me to break the precepts.' Then a little bit later he wanted to kill the snake again. He wanted to cut off its head. Then again he thought, 'It is not proper for me who has taken the precepts from the Elder to break the precepts.' For three times he was undecided. After thinking in that way three times, he said, 'I will sacrifice my life, but not the precepts.' So he threw the axe away. He told himself, 'I will let the snake kill me.' At that moment the snake uncoiled and went away. That kind of abstinence is through observance of precepts. Because you have taken the precepts you abstain from something.

Student: Inaudible.

Sayàdaw: Both are Akusala, killing a human being or killing a snake.

Student: Inaudible.

Sayàdaw: He is not killing himself. He just gives up because if he kills the snake, he will break the precept. He would rather give up his life than break the precept. It is not killing one's self. We can take it that there are two abstinences here. There is the man's abstinence to kill the snake and the snake's abstinence to kill the man. In this case the abstinence of the snake is on occasion nd the abstinence of the man is on precepts.

   The third one is abstinence with the total eradication of defilements. That can happen only for Arahants. For Arahants even the Citta that I will kill or something does not arise. For details please see The Expositor. These stories are given there, pages 136-137.

   The next group is the Appamaññà, limitless ones. Sometimes they are translated as the illimitables, but I think limitless or boundless is better than illimitables because they have no bounds, they have no limits. That is why they are called limitless. They are called Appamaññà in Pàli.

   'Limitless' here means they take limitless or boundless beings as object. When you practice, let us say compassion or sympathetic joy, you have to take all beings. That is why they are called Appamaññà. I think limitless or boundless ones is better than illimitable ones.

   In Pàli Suttas this term is used and also in Abhidhamma. Brahma Vihàra however is more commn nd more popular than the word Appamaññà.

   The Book of Analysis is the second book of Abhidhamma. There the practice of the four Brahma Vihàras is given. Let me read from it about loving-kindness. If you know about loving-kindness, you know about compassion and so on.

   'Herein a Bhikkhu dwells with a mind accompanied by loving-kindness suffusing one direction, also a second direction, lso a third direction, also a fourth direction, thus above, below, around everywhere, identifying himself with all. he dwells suffusing the world of all beings with mind accompanied by loving-kindness, extensive, sublime, unlimited, without enmity, without illwill.'

   Actually when you practice loving-kindness and the others, you have to take all beings. At first you may practice loving-kindness to a person, one person, then two persons, or to those in the building, and then to those in this city and so on. But you must take all beings ultimately. That is why they are called Appamaññà.

   Here only two of the Appamaññàs are given, compassion and sympathetic joy. 'Compassion' means desire to remove or desire for beings to get free from suffering. Compassion actually takes beings who are suffering, who are in distress. If you see someone who is suffering, who is in distress, you have something like trembling in the heart. That is what we call Karunà in Pàli (compassion). When you practice compassion, you say, 'May he be free from suffering. May he be free from affliction.'

   Mudità is sympathetic joy. It is feeling happy with other persons' success, other persons' prosperity. So when other persons are prosperous, you feel happy. That i sympathetic joy or Mudità. Mudità takes other people in prosperity or happiness as object.

   All of thoe who are in distress and all of those who are in prosperity are the objects of these two, Karunà and Mudità, respectively.

   There are four Brahma Vihàras. I think you are all familiar with this. Brahma Vihàra is translated as divine abiding. 'Vihàra' here means living, not monastery. A monastery is called Vihàra in Pàli, but here 'Vihàra' just means living. 'Brahma' means Brahma or sublime. So it is sublime abiding or sublime living. 'Brahma' can also mean the real Brahmas. So 'Brahma Vihàra' means living like Brahmas. It is said that the Brahmas live practicing these four kinds of meditation. They don't have other things to do in the world of Brahmas. They practice one of these four kinds of meditation. They spend time with these four meditations. Therefore they are called Brahma Vihàra, living like Brahmas.

   There are four of them - loving-kindness, compassion, sympathetic joy and equanimity.

Here only two are given because loving-kindness is represented by Adosa (Cetasika 33). Equanimity is represented by Tatramajjhattatà (Cetasika 34). It is equanimity itself.

Student: Inaudible.

Sayàdaw: They are limitless in the sense that they take boundless beings.

Student: Inaudible.

Sayàdaw: The object of these four Brahma Vihàras is the concept of beings or just beings. We take them as beings. When we practice loving-kindness or any one of these four, we are deling with concepts. We are not concerned with ultimate truth. We are taking these persons as beings and suffusing them with loving-kindness - 'May they be free from enmity. May they be free from affliction.' and so on.

   The last one is called Paññindriya, the faculty of wisdom. It is Paññà. At the same time it is one of the faculties treated in the seventh chapter of the manual,the Abhidhammatthsangaha. The Pàli word 'Indriya' means to have control over something or someone, having control. So 'Paññindriya' means the Paññà which has control over penetrating into the nature of things. It is translated as faculty in English. so it is the faculty of wisdom.

   Indriya is like a minister in the governments. There are ministers of internal affairs, of external affairs, of war and so on. They have full control ove their respective departments. In the same way Paññà and others have control over their function. That is why they are called Indriya in Pàli.

   Actually Paññà and Paññindriya are the same. Sometimes it is called Amoha (non-delusion), or Vijjà, or sometimes Dhammavicaya (investigation of the Dhamma) and so on. It is the Paññà we met when we studied the sense-sphere beautiful consciousness.

   altogether we have 52 Cetasikas or mental factors. Some of these mental factors may be more interesting than others. What we call emotions are just some of these mental factors, like Dosa, Issa, Macchariya and so on.

   There is a wealth of information about these Cetasikas in The Path of Purification. In that book you can find their characteristic, their function, their manifestation and their proximate cause. If we could make a detailed study of these I think it would be very fruitful. This time we cannot.

   There are five aggregates taught in Buddhism. The 52 Cetasikas constitute three aggregtes. You know the five aggregates. There is the aggregate of matter. We will come to that later. Then there is the aggregate of feeling. It is the feeling mental factor. The aggregate of perception is the Saññà mental factor. Then the next is the ggregate of mental formations. 'The aggregate of mental formations' really means the 50 Cetasikas headed by Cetanà. So we have Vedanà as aggregate of feeling, Saññà as aggregate of perception. The remaining 50 Cetasikas are collectively called the aggregate of mental formations. Actully they are the group of mental formations headed by Cetanà. The last one is the aggregate of consciousness which we have studied. We have only one more aggregate to study. We will study it maybein the seventh talk.

   Next week we will study how the mental factors (Cetasikas) arise with Cittas. We will study how many Cetasikas arise together with a given Citta or with how many Cittas a certain Cetasika arises, or in other words the combinations of Citts and Cetasikas. We will study the combinations in two ways - Cetasikas-Citta combination and Citta-Cetsikas combination next week.

Student: Do loving-kindness and equanimity have limitless beings as object?

Sayàdaw: Yes, yes.

Student: Why are they not includd in the limitless group?

Sayàdaw: Because they are given in the other groups. That is why they are not shown here. In the list only Karunà and Mudità are given as limitless ones. In fact all four are in the 52 Cetasikas.

Student: There seems like there is something special about the limitless ones or the limitless objects. They are exalted. They are Brahma Vihàras. The question is why are they not included in the same category with Karunà and Mudità?

Sayàdaw: Actually they are included in the same category.

Student: But they are included some place else.

Sayàdaw: But here since they have been mentioned before, they are not mentioned here again.

Student: Is the reason they were mentioned before is that these cannot take a limited beingas object whereas these two can?

Sayàdaw: No. When you practice and they become Brahma Vihàras, then they must take limitless beings. Only then will they be called limitless ones or in Pàli Appamaññà. All these four take limitless beings as objects let us say ultimately.When you practice loving-kindness meditation for exmple, you can bbegin with yourself.You begin with yourself and say, 'May I be well, happy and peaceful.' So it is not limitless yet. Then you say, 'May my friends, my enemies and so on be well, happy and peaceful'. Then at last you say, 'May all beings be well, happy and peaceful'. In the end you must reach all beings. That is why they are called limitless ones.

Student: Loving-kindness and equanimity are common to all wholesome Cittas. But you don't necessarily find compassion and sympathetic joy in common with all beautiful Cittas?

Sayàdaw: They are not common with all beautiful Cittas.

Student: But you always find equanimity and loving-kindness in common with all beautiful Cittas.

Sayàdaw: That's right. When they become limitless, they are specilly developed.

Student: So they are not always limitless, but when they are specially developed, then they are limitless. Are these always limitless? You could never have limited-

Sayàdaw: Actually you can have limited beings as object. But ultimately you have to take limitless beings. Mostly we practice loving-kindness meditation. When we practice loving-kindness meditation as I said before, you begin with yourself, with individuals, with a limited number of beings. You widen the range of beings little by little until you reach all beings.

Student: Can you practice compssion meditation?

Sayàdaw: Yes.

Student: Loving-kindness is one thing and compassion is something else?

Sayàdaw: That's right. Loving-kindness and compassion are different.

Student: Why are feeling and perception separated? They are both Cetasikas (mental factors). Why are they separated when you think of the aggregates? Why are they separated from the rest of the mental formations?

Sayàdaw: Depending on feeling you get attached to things in the world. Depending on perception the same thing happens. Because of perception you have attachment to the world. So they are singled out as aggregates. The others are not like them, so they are grouped as one.

Student: Do the other ones sometimes stimulate attachment too or is it mainly in this area you get reaction to it?

Sayàdaw: According to Dependent Origination Vedanà is the condition for Tanhà ( thirst or craving).

Student: And then perception?

Sayàdaw: Through perception you experience the object more fully. Perception helps you to experience the object more fully. Therefore it is singled out also.

Student: When you talk about mindfulness, the natural result of being very mindful would be a lot of these things like equanimity, mindfulness, compassion, loving-kindness. That would be the natural way for the mind to be.

Sayàdaw: Yes, mindfulness arises together with all these mental factors. During meditation we develop mindfulness more fully. You know even though you do not practice meditation, when you do something good like studying, you have mindfulness there. But when you practice meditation, mindfulness is specially developed.

Student: It is interesting that mindfulness is what is developed in Vipassanà meditation.

Sayàdaw: This is so because it helps concentration. It is like this. You make effort. That is Vìriya. With effort your mind is on the object. That is mindfulness. When you have mindfulness, you have concentration. So mindfulness helps concentration. Without mindfulness there can be no concentration. Only when you have concentration can you have understanding (Paññà), penetration. So mindfulness is beneficial for concentration. Concentration helps Paññà arise.

   They are called faculties. There are five faculties when you practice meditation. The first one is faith or confidence. If you do not have confidence in the practice, you will not practice at all. So you must have faith or confidence. Then there is effort. Then there is mindfulness. Then there is concentration. And then there is Paññà or penetration. These five are almost always present when you have good concentration, when you have good meditation. Before your mind is concentrated, you may not have Paññà at that moment. It may be lacking sometimes. But when your concentration becomes better and you can be on the object for a long time, then Paññà also arises. These five faculties always work together. If any one of them is lacking, then your meditation is not working, it is not good. Especially they are to be balanced. One must not be in excess of the other. Especially there must be in meditation practice a balance between effort and concentration. When you have too much effort, you will become agitated. You lose concentration. If you have too much concentration and too little effort, you will become sleepy. These two have to be balanced. Sometimes when you practice meditation, you feel something like sleepy, but you are not really tired. Meditation becomes so easy for you that you lack energy. Concentration has the better of it. You tend to become sleepy. And sometimes you are too energetic. You are too eager to achieve. So you put forth more effort, and the more effort you put forth the less you get concentration. Your concentration is gone because you are agitated. So these two have to be balanced. These are the five faculties. Mindfulness is conducive to concentration. Concentration is conducive to wisdom or understanding.

Student: Thank you.

Sayàdaw: Your welcome.

Student: Mindfulness and equanimity are common to all the beautiful Cittas?

Sayàdaw: Yes.

Student: That means wherever the beautiful Cittas arise, those two are present?

Sayàdaw: Yes, all 19 are present.

Student: Then compassion and sympathetic joy are present with just some of the beautiful Cittas?

Sayàdaw: Yes, not wth all, only some Cittas. We willcome to that next week - how many Cittas they accompany. If you are curious now, you can look at the chart.



                                 Sàdhu!    Sàdhu!    Sàdhu!