Tonight we will study the combinations of Cittas and Cetasikas or you may call it a matching game - matching Cittas with Cetasikas and Cetasikas with Cittas. They come into combination in different ways. Not every Citta is accompanied by all the Cetasikas. Not every Cetasika accompanies all Cittas. They come into combination in different ways. Today we will study the combinations. I am afraid you will have to do some class work.
Before going to the combinations of Cittas and Cetasikas I think we need to freshen our memories or we need to warm up. When I say a certain Citta, you can pinoint that Citta. Let us go through the Cittas first. Please look at the chart. The first column represents what? These twelve dots represent unwholesome or Akusala Cittas. The red ones are those that are accompanied by pleasurable feeling. The blue ones are those that are accompanied by indifferent or neutral feeling. The green ones are accompanied by illwill, or anger, or displeasure. There are twelve of them.
The next three columns represent the rootless consciousnesses. There are 18 rootless consciousnesses. The first column represents the resultants of unwholesome or Akusala. The second column represents the resultants of Kusala or wholesome. The third column represents the functional rootless Cittas, functional rootless types of consciousness. They are not wholesome, nor are they unwholesome, and they are not the result of wholesome or unwholesome. They just arise and disappear. They are called functional or they are called Kiriya in Pàli.
The first one of the first column of rootless consciousness is seeing consciousness. The second dot represents hearing consciousness. The third is smelling consciousness. The fourth is tasting consciousness. The cross is touching consciousness or body consciousness. The sixth is receiving consciousness and the seventh is investigating consciousness.
The second column of the rootless consciousness represents the resultants of Kusala. There is one more Citta there one more red dot. There is once again eye consciousness, ear consciousness, nose, tongue and body consciousness. And there is receiving consciousness. There are two investigating consciousnesses. The first one is accompanied by pleasurable feeling and the second one is accompanied by neutral feeling.
Then we come to the third column. The first dot in this column is five-sense-door-adverting consciousness. The second one is mind-door-adverting consciousness. The third one is smile-producing consciousness. it is accompanied by pleasurable feeling.
These 18 are called 'rootless consciousness' because they are not accompanied by any of the six roots.
The next three columns represent beautiful sense-sphere consciousness. They have beautiful qualities. They are accompanied by mental factors that are called beautiful. So they are called beautiful consciousness or good consciousness.
The first column represents wholesome types of consciousness. The second column represents resultant types of consciousness. The third column represents functional types of consciousness. The first four are accompanied by pleasurble feeling and the second four are accompanied by indifferent feeling. There ae all together 24.
So far we have all together 54 types of consciousness. These 54 types of consciousness are called sense-sphere consciousness. That means these consciousnesses arise mainly in the sense-sphere. 'Sense-sphere' means realms where sense desire predominates like the human realm, animal kingdom and lower celestial realms.
The next three columns, five dots each, represent the form-sphere consciousnesses. Actually they are Jhàna consciousness. The first column is wholesome. The second column is resultant. The third column is functional. The first dot of the first column represents what? The first Jhàna. The second dot of the first column represents the second Jhàna, and then there are the third, fourth and fifth Jhànas. The first four Jhànas are accompanied by pleasurable feeling and the last one is accompanied by indifferent or neutral feeling. There are altogether 15 kinds of consciousness belonging to the form-sphere.
The next three columns with four dots in each column represent formless-sphere consciousness. They arise mainly in the Brahma worlds where there is no form, no matter, no material property whatsoever. Only Cittas and Cetasikas exist in these realms.
The first column represents wholesome (Kusala), the second column represents resultant (Vipàka) and the third column represents functional (Kiriya). The first dot of the first column represents what? Do you remember that? It is consciousness having infinite space as object. The second Citta has the first Citta as object. The third Citta has 'nothingness' as object (the nothingness of the first Citta). The fourth is called 'neither perception nor non-perception'. All of these twelve are accompanied by neutral or indifferent feeling. They are included in the fifth Jhàna. They are called 'formless-sphere Jhànas'. When we divide them into first, second, third, fourth and fifth Jhànas, then these belong to the fifth Jhàna group.
Let me ask you how many first Jhàna consciousnesses there are? There are three first Jhàna consciousnesses. There are also three second Jhàna consciousnesses, three third Jhàna consicousnesses, three fourth Jhàna consciousnesses. How many fifth Jhàna consciousnesses are there? There are fifteen - three form-sphere consciousnesses and twelve formless-sphere consciousnesses.
Up trhough that column there are altogether 81 types of consciousnesses. These 81 types of consciousness are called mundane consciousness. They belong to mundane sphere or mundane world.
The remaining ones are called supramundane consciousness, transcending the world. They are actually Path Consciousness and Fruition Consciousness. Path Consciousness arises at the moment of enlightenment. The Fruition Consciousness immediately follows the Path Consciousness at the moment of realization, at the moment of enlightenment.
The supramundane consciousnesses can be just eight or they can be divided into forty types of consciousness. First let us say there are eight types of supramundane consciousness. When we say there are eight types of supramundane consciousness, then we have to take the first column as only one Citta, and the second column as only one Citta, the third column as one Citta, the fourth column as one Citta and so on. The first column represents the Path of Stream-Entrant (Sotàpanna). The second column represents the Path of the Once-Returner (Sakadàgàmì). The third column represents the Non-Returner (Anàgàmì). The fourth column represents the Path Consciousness of an Arahant. The first of the next group of four columns represents the Fruition Consciousness of the Stream-Entrant. The next column represents the Fruition Consciousness of the Once-Returner. The third column represents the Fruition Consciousness of the Non-Returner. The last column represents the Fruition Consciousness of an Arahant. If we take one column as only one consciousness, then we get eight supramundane consciousnesses.
These eight types of supramundane consciousness can become forty types of consciousness according to how many factors of Jhàna arise with them. In that case we have first Jhàna Path of the Stream-Entrant, second Jhàna Path of the Stream-Entrant, third Jhàna Path of the Stream-Entrant, fourth Jhàna Path of the Stream-Entrant and fifth Jhàna Path of the Stream-Entrant. In this case we have five Path Consciousnesses for the Stream-Entrant. And then there are five Path Consciousnesses for the Once-Returner and so on. There are altogether forty. So there are eight or forty supramundane consciousness. There are 81 types of mundane consciousness and forty types of supramundane consciousness. Altogether there are 121 types of consciousness. If we take supramundane consciousnes as only eight, then we get 89 types of consciousness.
This chart is very helpful in identifying different types of consciousness. It is like a map. When you pick up a travel book and read about a place and look at a map, then you know what the book is saying. Otherwise you would be lost. In the same way you need to be at least familiar with this chart in order to find out which Citta is being talked about.
Student: Each one of the Path Consciousnesses is in combination with different Jhàna consciousness?
Sayàdaw: In fact the supramundane consciousnesses are not Jhàna consciousnesses, in the sense that they are the same as form-sphere consciousness. They are called 'Jhàna consciousness' here because they resemble the form-sphere consciousness in having the same number of Jhàna factors arising with them. If you remind me, I will explain it to you after we study the combinations.
Let us assume now that you are familiar with the 121 types of consciousness. At least you can look them up on the chart and you know what we are taking about. There are 121 types of consciousness.
Let us now go to Cetasikas. How many mental factors are there? There are 52 mental factors. They are grouped into different groups. The first group contains how many? Thirteen. The thirteen are subdivided into group of seven and six respectively. Seven are called 'universals' because they arise with every Citta. The six are called 'particulars' because they do not arise with each and every Citta, but only with particular Cittas. They arise in a scattered manner. So they are called 'particulars' or Pakinakas in Pàli.
The next group is Akusala, unwholesome mental factors. There are altogether fourteen.
Then there are 25 beautiful mental factors. These 25 are subdivided are subdivided into four groups. The first group is comprised of 19 Cetasikas. The second group is the thre abstinences. The third group is the two limitless or boundless ones . The last group (I don't know if I can call it a group as it is only one.) one is the faculty of wisdom. These are the 52 Cetasikas.
The characteristic of Cetasika is what? It arises together with Citta; it disappears together with Citta; it hs the same object as Citta; and it has the same base as Citta. Whenever Citta arises, Cetasikas also arise.
First we are going to study the Cetasika-Citta combination. That means we pick up a Cetasika and try to find out how many Cittas it arises with. If you look at the lecture notes, you will see the numbers there. The universals are associated with all the Cittas. There is no problem with the first ones. They arise with every one of the 89 or121 types of consciousness.
The next one, initial application (Vitakka) arises with not all but only 55 types of consciousness. The serial numbers of the Cittas are given. Initial application arises with Cittas 1-12, 18, 19, 25-54, 55, 60, 65, 80 and so on. If you look at the chart it is not so difficult. Please look at the chart and try to find the sense-sphere consciousness, the 54 sense-sphere consciousnesses. Out of these only ten do not arise without initial
application. So initial application arises with all of the first column (the Akusala Cittas).
The second and third columns you leave out the first five in each column, ten altogether (the Dvipañcaviññàna). Then receiving and investigating Cittas along with all of the rest of the Kàmavacara Cittas have initial application as a mental factor. From among the Form-sphere and Formless-sphere and supramundane consciousnesses, you take only the first line. Only the Cittas in the first line across have initial application as a mental factor.
How many are there in the first line beginning with the Rùpavacara? Eleven. If you look across from the Sense-sphere consciousnesses, you get eleven circles or dots. They are the first Jhàna consciousnesses. Initial application arises only with first Jhàna consciousness. It does not arise with the second, third, fourth and fifth Jhàna Cittas. If you go back to the types of consciousness, you see that. First Jhàna is accompanied by initial application, sustained application, joy, happiness and one-pointedness. Second Jhàna is not accompanied by initial application nor are the third, fourth and fifth Jhànas. Initial application accompanies or associates with 55 types of consciousness.
If you could make diagrams like this, it would be very, very helpful. It takes a lot of time. This is just for initial application. For sustained application you will have another diagram. For decision there is another and so on. It is like computer learning. I will leave some here so that you will get the idea.
Initial application does not arise with seeing consciousness, hearing consciousness and so on. That is because, let us say in seeing consciousness there is the impact of the eye and the visible object; the impact is so great that the consciousness does not need initial application to take it to the object. That is why seeing consciousness and also hearing, smelling, tasting and touching consciousness do not need initial application. That is why initial application does not arise with these ten types of consciousness. We take out these ten types of consciousness from 54 and get 44 out of 54 Sense-sphere consciousnesses which have initial application as a mental factor. Then in the Jhàna consciousnesses it arises only with the First Jhàna. We pick only first Jhàna consciousnesses which are only eleven. In this way we get 55 types of consciousness that arise with initial application.
The next one, sustained application, arises with 66 types of consciousness, the 55 plus the eleven second Jhàna consciousnesses or the second line.
Decision accompanies Cittas 1-10, 12, 18, 19, 25-89 or 121. These are all combinations so it is not so interesting.
Then effort accompanies 73 or 105 Cittas.
Joy or Pìti accompanies 51 types of consciousness. You know Pìti accompanies pleasurable feeling. You have to choose from the types of consciousness accompanied by pleasurable feeling or you have to choose from the red dots. Pìti does not accompany the fourth Jhàna. So you take out the fourth Jhàna consciousness. The others are accompanied by Pìti. So we get altogether 51 types of consciousness.
Then there is conation. Conation accompanies 69 or 101 types of consciousness. They are Cittas 1-10, 31-89. Conation does not arise with the two types of consciousness rooted in delusion nor in the 18 Ahetuka (rootless) consciousnesses.
These are the most difficult ones. The others are not so difficult. Now we come to the Akusala Cetasikas (unwholesome mental factors). The first four always arise together, that is delusion, moral shamelessness, moral fearlessness and restlessness. They arise together with every type of unwholesome consciousness. Whenever unwholesome consciousness arises these four are with it. Delusion accompanies Cittas 1-12. Moral shamelessness accompanies Cittas 1-12 and so on.
Attachment or Lobha accompanies only eight types of consciousness. These eight are rooted in attachment (the first eight dots in the first column).
Wrong view accompanies only four types of consciousness - 1,2,5 and 6. Conceit only accompanies four types of consciousness - 3,4,7 and 8. It is explained in the Commentaries that wrong view and conceit do not arise at the same time. They do not arise simultaneously. Wrong view is taking that there is a permanent self or something like that. Conceit is pride. Both are accompanied by attachment, attachment to one's self, attachment to 'I'. But they have difference in viewing things. That is why they cannot arise at the same time. There is conceit because there is wrong view that there is a self or there is something permanent. They are compared to two equal lions which cannot live in a single cave. When there is wrong view, there is no conceit, and when there is conceit, there is no wrong view. One may be conditioned by the other, but they do not arise at the same moment. They arise at different moments. That is why wrong view accompanies Cittas 1,2,5,6 and conceit accompanies Citts 3,4,7, 8. They do not arise together.
The next four Cetasikas are illwill, jealousy, avariciousness and remorse. These four accompany the two Cittas rooted in illwill or Dosa. So they accompany only two Cittas, 9 and 10.
Sloth and torpor accompany those Cittas that are prompted. This is so because when sloth and torpor accompany a Citta it is not so alert. It is kind of dull. So they have to be prompted. Sloth and torpor accompany Cittas 2,4,6, 8, and 10.
Doubt accompanies only one Citta, the eleventh one. Doubt is the only Cetasika that arises only with one Citta. The others arise with more than one Citta.
Then there are those Cetasikas common to beautiful types of consciousness. The first 19 are common to all types of beautiful consciousness, beginning with the wholesome Sense-sphere types of consciousness up through the supramundane types of consciousness. All 19 of these Cetasikas are associated with all types of beautiful consciousness.
Then there are the three abstinences. They accompany Cittas 31-38. Those are the wholesome Sense-sphere consciousness. They also accompany Cittas 82-89 or 82-121. That means they accompany the supramundane consciousnesses. Abstinences accompany Sense-sphere Kusala and the supramundane consciousness.
The limitess ones accompany Sense-sphere Kusala and also Cittas 47-54. What are 47-54? They are the Sense-sphere functional. The limitless ones also accompany 55-58 (Jhàna consciousness), 60-63 (Jhàna consciousness), 65-68 (Jhàna consciousness). What Jhànas? They accompany first Jhàna, second Jhàna, third Jhàna and fourth Jhàna. The limitless ones do not accompany the fifth Jhàna consciousness. Fifth Jhàna consciousness is accompanied by indifferent feeling. The others are accompanied by pleasurable feeling.
The last one is the faculty of wisdom, or understanding, or knowledge. It does not accompany all beautiful consciousness but some of them especially among the Sense-sphere types of consciousness. It accompanies 31-32, 35-36, 39-40, 43-44, 47-48, 51-52, and the rest 55-89. All form-sphere conciousness, formless-sphere consciousness and suprmundane consciousness are accompanied by wisdom. Without knowledge or understanding these types of consciousness cannot arise. They are always accompanied by knowledge or wisdom or Paññà in Pàli.
This is called the Sampayoga method in Pàli, the Cetasika-Citta combination. We pick up a certain Cetasika and try to find out which Cittas it arises with. If we are really familiar with the combinations of Cetasikas and Citta, then we can easily understand the combinations of Citta and Cetasikas because it is the other way round. If you write these down one by one, you can just look at them the other way. You get the second method, Citta-Cetasika combination. You pick up the Citta first and then try to find out how many Cetasikas arise together with that particular Citta. The second sheet gives you these combinations - Citta-Cetasika combination. It is called Sangaha Method in Pàli.
So there are eight unwholesome Cittas with attachment, Cittas 1-8. The first one is accompanied by Cetasikas 1-19. The second one is accompanied by Cetasikas 1-19 and also Cetasikas 25 and 26. The third one is accompanied by Cetasikas 1-18 and 20. The fourth one is accompanied by 1-18, 20, 25 and 26 and so on.
If you go down the list, you will see eye consciousness etc. That means eye consciousness, ear consciousness, nose consciousness, tongue consciousness and body consciousness. They are often grouped together and referred to as twice fivefold consciousness. There are five types of consciousness - seeing, hearing and so on. There are two types of each of these five consciousnesses. One is the result of unwholesome actions and the other is the result of wholesome actions. These ten types of consciousness are collectively called twice fivefold consciousness (Dvipañcaviññàna). In the list 'eye consciousness etc.' means two eye consciousnesses, two ear consciousnesses, two nose consciousnesses, two taste consciousnesses and two body consciousnesses. Can you point them out on the chart? These ten. They are referred to as twice fivefold consciousness. They are accompanied by 1-7 of the Cetasikas. That means they are only accompanied by the universals.
There are two receiving consciousnesses. They are accompanied by Cetasikas 1-10.
There are three investigating consciousneses. Two are accompanied by indifferent feeling and one is accompanied by pleasurable feeling. Those accompanied by indifferent feeling are associated with Cetasikas 1-10. The investigating consciousness accompanied by pleasurable feeling is associated with eleven Cetasikas, 1-10 plus 12.
Then five-sense-door-adverting (That is a functional type of consciousness, 28) is accompanied by Cetasikas 1-10.
The next one is mind-door-adverting. It is accompanied by 1-11.
The last one is smile-producing consciousness. It is accompanied by Cetasikas 1-12.
Next is the sense-sphere beautiful, wolesome consciousnesses. Number 31 and 32 are accompanied by 38 mental factors. Number 33 and 34 are accompanied by 37 mental factors. 35 and 36 are accompanied by 37 mental factors not 36. Please correct the chart. 38,37,37,36 - it should go like that. 35 and 36 are accompanied by 37 Cetasikas. 37 and 38 are accompanied by 36 Cetasikas.
Then the resultant wholesome consciousness 39 and 40 are accompanied by 33 Cetasikas. 41 and 42 are accompanied by 32 Cetasikas. 43 and 44 are accompanied by 32 Cetasikas. 45 and 46 are accompanied by 31 Cetasikas.
Next are the functional wholesome consciousnesses. 47 and 48 are accompanied by 35 Cetasikas. 49 and 50 are accompanied by 34 Cetasikas. 51 and 52 are accompanied by 34 Cetasikas. 53 and 54 are accompanied by 33 Cetasikas.
Then we have form-sphere consciousness. Here we take first Jhàna consciousness, not by wholesome, resultant and functional. So first Jhàna here means the first three across. They are accompanied by 35 Cetasikas. The second Jhàna is accompnied by 34 Cetasikas. The third Jhàna Cittas are accompanied 33 Cetasikas. The fourth Jhàna Cittas are accompnied by 32 Cetasikas. The fifth Jhàna Cittas are how many? There are three fifth Jhàna Rùpavacara Cittas and twelve fifth Jhàna Arùpavacara Cittas. sothere are 15. They are accompanied by 30 Cetasikas. The formless-sphere Cittas can be included with the fifth Jhàna Rùpavacara Cittas because they have the same Cetasikas. They are accompanied by 30 Cetasikas.
Then we have supramundane consciousness. We go by Jhàna Cittas. First Jhàna supramundane consciousness (the first line across), these Cittas are accompanied by 36 Cetasikas. The second Jhàna supramundane consciousnesses are accompanied by 35 Cetasikas. The third Jhàna supramundane consciousnesses are accompanied by 34 Cetasikas. Fourth Jhàna Cittas are accompanied by 33 Cetasikas. And fifth Jhàna Cittas are again accompanied by 33 Cetasikas.
We have to devise many charts to attack this one problem. This is another chart. I think it is very helpful, but you need an explanation because this chart was done about eight or nine years ago. The man who drew the chart made some mistakes. I didn't read the proof. So after he brought them to me, I saw some mistakes. We could not correct them, especially the spelling of some cittas.
Here I give only the Pàli words. It may seem very strange to you. It looks like another thing. If you read the chart across, you get the Citta-Cetasika method. If you read down, you get the Cetasika-Citta method.
The first one, 'Lobhamùla' means rooted in attachment. So they are cittas 1-8. They are accompanied by the Sabbacittasadharana. It is a Pàli name for the universals which are seven. Then there is Vitakka (initial application), Vicàra (sustained application), Adhimokkha (decision), Viriya (effort), Pìti (joy) and Chanda (conation).
The next group is Moha, Ahirika, Anottappa, and Uddhacca (delusion, moral shamelessness, moral fearlessness and restlessness). Next is Lobha (attachment), Ditthi (wrong view) and Màna (conceit). Then there is Dosa, Issa, Macchariya and Kukucca (illwill, jealousy, avariciousness and remorse). Thina and Midha (sloth and torpor) are the next group. Vicikicca (doubt) is the last of the Akusala Cetasikas.
Sobhanasadhàrana 19, the common to all beautiful Cittas are next. Virati three means the abstinences. Then there are the Apamaññà two, the limitless ones and finally Paññàindriya, the faculty of wisdom.
Then let us look at the Cittas. Lobhamùla numbe one means rooted in attachment. There are eight Cittas in the Lobhamùla group. In the Dosamùla group there are two Cittas. Mohamùla means rooted in delusion. There are also two Cittas in this group.
Student: What is the transalation of Dosamùla?
Sayàdaw: Rooted in illwill.
The numbers given on the chart are not the consecutive serial numbers of the Cittas. It may create some confusion.
The next group, Dvipañcaviññàna, is the twice fivefold consciousness. They are two seeing consciousnesses, two hearing consciousnesses, two smelling consciousnesses, two tasting consciousnesses, and two body consciousnesses. Ten are grouped together in this chart because they have the same number of Cetasikas arising with them.
You can expand this chart. It may become something like a spread sheet. There is another chart made by one of my friends, but the type is too small. Even though the chart is about five feet tall, it is still difficult to read the type. They are copies and so they are not so distinct. If you can make a chart that is big enough, giving the consciousnesses one by one, it would be a very easy reference. You can go to any kind of consciousness and read through the Cetasikas. This chart is for those who attend the clss. It is compressed.
So Dvipañcaviññàna ten means seeing consciousness and the rest. Sampaticchana is receiving consciousness. There are two of them. Santirana 'Up' (Up means Upekkha), so Santirana that is accompanied by indifferent feeling is what is meant here. There are two. 'Santirana' means investigating. Santirana 'So' means Santirana accompanied by Somanassa (pleasurable feeling). Pañcadvàravajjana is five-sense-door-adverting. Manodvàravajjana is mind-door-adverting. Hasituppàda is smile-producing consciousness.
Next we have Kàmavacara Kusala one and two, three and four, five and six, seven and eight. They are grouped together because one and two are accompanied by knowledge (Paññà). Three and four are not accompanied Paññà. Then there is Kàmavacara Vipàka one and two, three and four, five and six, seven and eight. And there is Kàmavacara Kiriya (functional) first and second, third and fourth, fifth and sixth, seventh and eighth.
Then we have Rùpavacara (form-sphere) consciousness. There are first Jhàna three, second Jhàna three, third Jhàna three, fourth Jhàna three and fifth Jhàna three.
Next we have Arùpavacara Jhàna twelve. They are all fifth Jhàna.
Now comes the most difficult area because we have to multiply Sotàpatti Magga with first, second, third, fourth and fifth. They are too compressed here. If you expand it, it will become another page. Sotàpatti, the first one, means Stream-entrant. There is Sotàpatti Magga first Jhàna, Sotàpatti Magga second Jhàna, Sotàpatti Magga third Jhàna and so on. Then Sotàpatti Phala is in the second subgroup. We have Sotàpatti Phala first Jhàna, Sotàpatti Phala second Jhàna, Sotàpatti Phala third Jhàna and so on.
Why is the supramundane consciousnesses called Jhàna consciousness? I told you if you would remind me that I would explain it to you. I just remembered. If you look at the Sotàpatti Magga first Jhàna or if you compare this with Rùpavacara first Jhàna, is there Vitakka for both? Yes. Vicàra? Yes. Pìti? Yes. Happiness is included in the universal seven. Happiness is feeliing or Vedàna. So it is included in the Sabbacittasadhàrana seven. The last one is what? Ekaggatà. The last one is also among the universal seven.
The Rùpavacara first Jhàna and Sotàpatti Magga first Jhàna Have the same number of Jhàna factors arising in them. That is why this Magga Citta is called first Jhàna Magga Citta. Actually it is not Jhàna Citta. It is Magga Citta or Path consciousness. This Path consciousness resembles the first Jhàna in having the same number of Jhàna factors arising with it. With first Rùpavacara Jhàna there is Vitakka (initial application), Vicàra (sustained application), Pìti (joy), Sukha (happiness) and Ekaggatà (one-pointedness of mind). Sotàpatti Magga has the same number of Jhàna factors. That is why the Path consciousness is called first Jhàna first path consciousness, second Jhàna first Path consciousness and so on. So they have the same number of Jhàna factors, but not the same number of Cetasikas. They have the same number of Jhàna factors. Therefore they are called Jhàna Magga Cittas. Actually they are not Jhàna Cittas. They are Magga Cittas.
The other chart we brought today is to help you pinpoint theCittas by numbers. You can put numbers in the circles if you want to. If you have time and if you want to, you can do charts like these. They will be very helpful when you review. You can get the answer instantly when you have these charts. You will have to make about ten or twenty of them, not 52. The universal seven can be grouped together as one. Then the 19 common to beautiful can be grouped together as one. The three abstinences can be grouped together as one. The limitless ones can be grouped together as one and so on. So you don't have to draw 52 charts for 52 Cetasikas. There may be about ten charts. One of my students educed this chart to a very small size so that about twenty were on a letter-size piece of paper. Then he put colors in it. That's a way of doing it economically. You don't have to have big charts.
I can offer you some charts also. They are different from the circles, but they are also helpful. They were made by a student of mine. In this chart the Akusala, Kusala, Vipàka and Kiriya are represented by different shapes. There are triangles, circles, squares and hexagons. I will leave them here. If you are interested and if you want, you can put the number of Cetasikas arising with each Citta. You can put for the Akusala for example 19, 21 and so on.
We have to do many things to help our memory. This is actually already done. It was done in color originally, so the numbers in the copies don't show clearly. You may do what you like with these. I will leave them here. At least be familiar with or be able to look at the chart, and know this is this Citta, this is another Citta and so on.
If you want to test or exercise, I also have some blnk charts. There are no small dots given there. You can just put them yourself. It takes a lot of time.
In the olden days they did not need these charts because they learned by heart the whole book. The whole book is only about 60 or 70 pages. So it is not a big deal to memorize the whole book. When you memorize it, then you have the whole book with you always. You can refer to it whenever you want. You don't need these charts actually. However if you cannot memorize the whole book, then you need these charts to help you understand clearly. Either way what you need to do is to become familiar with this. Even if you can only do when looking at the chart and you understand, it is alright.
In our countries we have to practice it repeatedly so that when the teacher asks a question, we can answer him promptly. We practice among ourselves, us students, asking one another questions like 'How many cetasikas go with the first Citta?' Then the other student will say, '19'. Then the first student may say, 'Name them'. The other student will say, 'Seven universals, Vitakka, Vicàra and so on'. That was practiced so that when we went to the teacher, we were ready with the answers. OK. Any questions?
Student: Do all the Burmese schools memorize this? If there are some that do not, what are the advantages of memorizing them?
Sayàdaw: In Burma they still memorize. You have to memorize a lot especially if you are a monk. Lay people have the Western system of education and so they don't memorize as they did before. Monks still use the traditional method of studying.
I think Burma is the only country where Pàli grammar is taught along traditional lines. That means there are what may be called grammar books. These books contain aphorisms, short statements and commentaries on these statements. The short statements are called aphorisms. We memorized these aphorisms and then if we could we also memorized the commentaries. So memorization is still done a lot in our country. When you have memorized it, as I have said, you have the book with you always. You can call to your mind the contents of the book whenever you want. So you are always with this knowledge.
Student: Is there an advantge in meditation doing this kind of memory work?
Sayàdaw: Not much. But a knowledge of Abhidhamma can help you clarify what you experience during meditation. A knowledge of Abhidhamma is very helpful for the practice of meditation although it is not indispensable.
If you go to a place without reading a map, you will reach there. You may not know which building is which. If you read a map before you go to the place, you will know which building is which. You don't have to be told.
In the same way when you are familiar with the mental factors and the types of consciousness, then during meditation you will experience these. You know what you are experiencing. You know what you are seeing mentally. So you don't have to be told. These things don't have to be explained in a detailed way. That is the benefit of a knowledge of Abhidhamma in meditation.
A knowledge of Abhidhamma can help us in our daily lives. When we know according to Abhidhamma that something is _Akusala or something is Kusala, then we can avoid Akusala and do Kusala. And when you do Kusala, and if you know how to do it, how to do it in order to get the most benefits out of it, then it has practical value.
Let us say people aspire for Nibbàna. They may say, 'May I attain Nibbàna through this act of merit, for example through this act of Dàna (giving), or through this act of keeping precepts (Sìla) and so on. Just wishing for Nibbàna is not enough. You have to do something in order to attain Nibbàna in future lives. You have to be born with a type of consciousness accompanied by wisdom so that you are capable of enlightenment in that life. In order for you to get such a rebirth, you have to see to it that the merit you do here will give the results that you want.
Déjenme decir que la gente aspira al Nibbana. Ellos pueden decir, 'Puedo alcnzar Nibbana a través de este acto de mérito, por ejemplo, a través de este acto de Dana (dar), o a través de este acto de seguir los preceptos (Sila)? Sólo desear Nibbana no es suficiente. Ustedes tienen que hacer algo para conseguir alcanzar Nibbana en vidas futuras. Tienen que nacer con un tipo de conciencia acompañada por sabiduría para que ustedes sean capaces de iluminarse en esa vida. Con el fin de que ustedes alcancen ese renacimiento, tienen que ver que el mérito que ustedes hagan aquí dará los resultados que ustedes quieren.
That means sometimes we do meritorious deeds without much thinking, without serious thinking. When we do meritorious lt us say superficially, thenthe consciousness at that time will not be accompanied by wisdom or understanding. Sometimes we pick up a thing and just give it to another person. We don't think of Kamma and its results. If that merit is not accompnied by understanding, then the results it gives will be without understanding. The result means the result of rebirth consciousness in the next life. If we are reborn with consciousness that is not accompanied by wisdom or knowledge, then we will not get enlightenment in that life. That means we will not get to Nibbàna in that life. So the knowledge of Abhidhamma can help us to shape our own future (I mean future lives.) by showing us what is the best of merits, the best of meritorious deeds. So Abhidhamma has a practical value in our daily lives.
In meditation Abhidhamma is just helpful for clarification. Without the knowledge of Abhidhamma many people practiced meditation and they became enlightened. They gained insight into the nature of things. Sometimes people experience or see something through meditation, but they do not know what they see.
Once a woman reported to me that she was watching the painful sensations in the body. After some time the sensation disappeared. She thought there was something like a gap. She did not know what it wasbecause there is painful feeling, then it disappears, and before the pleasurable feeling arises, there is an interim period or something like that. That is what we call indifferent feeling, neutral feeling. It is said in the books that neutral feeling is very difficult to see. You can think of it. You can talk about it. To actually see through self experience the neutral feeling is very difficult. So that woman experienced or saw neutral feeling, but she did not know that she ws experiencing neutral feeling. When it was explained to her, she was very glad that she could experience that neutral feeling. If she had a knowlege of Abhidhamma, maybe she would not need an explanation from a teacher.
Student: You mentioned a few weeks ago that in Buddhism there is no eternal soul. Still there is talk about reincarnation. How does that work?
Sayàdaw: We will come to it when we come to the thought processes, but I will explain it now too.
We accept momentary existence. So everything comes into being and disappears every moment. Even in this life one moment is different from another moment. We live for only one moment and then die. nd then there is the next moment, nd the next moment and so on.
Buddhism does not accept a permanent soul, something which lasts forever, something which goes from one life to another, maybe purifying itself or something like that. However Buddhism accepts rebirth or you may call it reincarnation. What is reborn in the next life is not the identical one who dies here. It is not altogether disconnected with the one who dies here however. This is a difficult point.
We have a formula: neither he nor another. The one reborn there is not the same person who died here. However the one reborn there is not totally different, is not totally new, is not totally disconnected from the one who dies here. Actually beings have gone through many lives. So they have the accumulation of merit and demerit. When merit or demerit , or good Kamma or bad Kamma, gets favorable conditions,then it will give results. We do not know when the Kamma will give results, but when the circumstances are favorable for good Kamma to give results, then the good results will come.
The next life is conditioned or let us say caused by something good or bad we did in the past. Because of that Kamma there is the result. Kamma and result are actually two different things, but they are connected as cause and effect.
I usually ask people, 'Areyou the same person that you were ten years ago?' What is the answer? Yes or no? Both yes and no, right? In the same way is a person reborn there a totally different person or does something go from this life to the next life? You will have to say, 'Yes and no.' because the one reborn there is not totally disconnected from the one who dies here. However nothing from this life ever goes to another life. Nothing is transferred to another life. Because of some cause here the result takes place there. In that way Buddhism does not accept a permanent or eternal soul.
Buddhism accepts rebirth. I am a little afraid of using the word reincarnation. Actually rebirth and reincarnation are the same. We cannot avoid using these words when we talk about this. In the ultimate sense there is no rebirth. The one we say is reborn is just born there, not reborn. If we say 'reborn' or 'reincarnated', we imply there was something that goes to that place. He becomes a different persn again. In fact because of something here there is the result.
In the chapter on Dependent Origination at the end of the chapter something is explained. We accept identity as well as diversity. We accept both. In one sense the one who dies here and the one who is reborn there are different. In another sense they are something like a continuity. We accept continuity as well as diversity. We have to accept both. It is not compromising but something like that. We have to accept both in one sense or the other.
Student: If nothing is carried over to the next life, how do you explain people that seem to remember their previous life? For example there was someone in India who got run over by a truck and seemed to remember that in the next life.
Sayàdaw: I think that is memory.
Student: So memory can be carried over to the next life?
Sayàdaw: According to the teaching of Abhidhamma everything has moment to moment existence. It is not that the previous moment gives something to the next moment in the sense that I give something to you. But this moment is a condition for the next moment. When it conditons the result or the folowing moment may have some of the qualities inherent in the preceding. It is not that the qualities are transferred. Because of the conditioning of these qualities the result may have similar but not identical qualities. Is that clear?
Student: That's what you were saying before. I don't understand. Bringing up the idea of memory, it means that memory also arises and passes away?
Student: It becomes fantastic to think that the mind can so condition the future so that actually patterns from the past are retained.
Student: We remember our childhood and many things. That the mind can recondition moment to moment in this way is really an amazing accomplishment.
Sayàdaw: Yes. On the conventional level we accept that but on the ultimate level we say that every phenomenon arises and disappears. Since one is the condition for the other, the one following gains something out of the preceding one. However the quality of the preceding one is not bodily tranferred to the next one. It gets something as a result of the condition. Maybe it amounts to the same thing, but the wy of accepting is different.
We Buddhists also say that a person is reborn or we may say that we remember our past lives. We may say that I was such andsuch in my past life or something like that.
Student: Could you say something about what is the difference between doing good actions in order to gain good rebirth and ambition. I don't see that there is much difference between doing good deeds for personal enlightenment and ambition.
Sayàdaw: It is not just spiritual greed but also greed for worldly things. As Buddhists we accept Samsàra, the rebirths. The best thing is to try to become enlightened in this life. However enlightenment may come in this life or it may not. We may need ten lives or 100 lives to become enlightened. If we are going to be reborn, we want to be reborn in a better existence. Being reborn as a human being or in a better existence helps us to get nearer enlightenment or to get more favorable conditions for the practice. The ideal is not to think of any future lives or whatever. One is to practice here and now. One is to try and gain enlightenment in this life. If we cannot hope to attain enlightenment in this life, then we will have to go through this journey of Samsàra. When we go through this journey of Samsàra, we want to go comfortably. Therefore we do meritorious deeds so that we may be reborn in a better existence.
That is why beings are reborn again and again because people have this kind of attachment to existence. This is one kind of craving, the Second Noble Truth. So the ideal is to get rid of the attachment or craving altogether so that there will be no more rebirths or no more becomings again.
Student: Are there conditions for the abstinences?
Sayàdaw: Yes, there are conditions or circumstances where the abstinences arise in you. When you practice meditation, there is no occasion for abstaining from anything. You abstain from something only when you have the circumstance there. For example you have a situation where you want to kill an animal. Then you do not kill it. You refrain from killing it. That is abstinence. However when you practice meditation, you don't have the situation for abstinence. You just practice meditation. During meditation the abstinences as mental factors do not arise in our mind.
We speak of the eight factors of Path or the Noble Eightfold Path. Three of the factors are the abstinences. When we practice meditation strictly speaking only the other five arise in our minds, arise with our Cittas, but not these three. Before practicing meditation you may have taken precepts. You make a commitment to abstain from killing and so on. So the abstinences may arise at the moment when you take precepts. After that they no longer arise in you when you practice meditation.
Student: You say you vow to abstin from certain things. Still the desire arises. Is abstinence a choice or a desire of the mind?
Sayàdaw: I think it is a choice. You choose to abstain from killing or something. Or you may not abstain. You may break the precepts. So it is a choice.
Student: Is there something that puts you over the top so to speak, that gives you the energy to abstain? What is it tht helps you to have the energy to make the right choice?
Sayàdaw: That is the knowledge of Kamma and its results. If you kill, that is Akusala and Akusala will give bad results. Even though you are not afraid of the results in this life, you know it is not right to kill beings. A knowledge of this motivates you to abstain.